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❶Society everywhere is in a conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members. Our first journeys discover to us the indifference of places.

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Emerson believes that the scholar's duties are all comprised in what?

But the law of consciousness abides. There are two confessionals, in one or the other of which we must be shriven. You may fulfill your round of duties by clearing yourself in the direct, or in the reflex way. Consider whether you have satisfied your relations to father, mother, cousin, neighbor, town, cat, and dog; whether any of these can upbraid you. But I may also neglect this reflex standard and absolve me to myself.

I have my own stern claims and perfect circle. It denies the name of duty to many offices that are called duties. But if I can discharge its debts it enables me to dispense with the popular code. If any one imagines that this law is lax, let him keep its commandment one day. And truly it demands something godlike in him who has cast off the common motives of humanity and has ventured to trust himself for a task-master.

High be his heart, faithful his will, clear his sight, that he may in good earnest be doctrine, society, law, to himself, that a simple purpose may be to him as strong as iron necessity is to others. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society, he will see the need of these ethics.

The sinew and heart of man seem to be drawn out, and we are become timorous desponding whimperers. We are afraid of truth, afraid of fortune, afraid of death, and afraid of each other. Our age yields no great and perfect persons.

We want men and women who shall renovate life and our social state, but we see that most natures are insolvent ; cannot satisfy their own wants, have an ambition out of all proportion to their practical force, and so do lean and beg day and night continually.

Our housekeeping is mendicant , our arts, our occupation, our marriages, our religion we have not chosen, but society has chosen for us. We are parlor soldiers. The rugged battle of fate, where strength is born, we shun. If our young men miscarry in their first enterprises they lose all heart. If the young merchant fails, men say he is ruined. If the finest genius studies at one of our colleges and is not installed in an office within one year afterwards in the cities or suburbs of Boston or New York, it seems to his friends and to himself that he is right in being disheartened and in complaining the rest of his life.

A sturdy lad from New Hampshire or Vermont, who in turn tries all the professions, who teams it, farms it, peddles, keeps a school, preaches, edits a newspaper, goes to Congress, buys a township, and so forth, in successive years, and always like a cat falls on his feet, is worth a hundred of these city dolls. He walks abreast with his days and feels no shame in not "studying a profession," for he does not postpone his life, but lives already.

He has not one chance, but a hundred chances. In what prayers do men allow themselves! That which they call a holy office is not so much as brave and manly. Prayer looks abroad and asks for some foreign addition to come through some foreign virtue, and loses itself in endless mazes of natural and supernatural, and mediatorial and miraculous. Prayer is the contemplation of the facts of life from the highest point of view.

It is the soliloquy of a beholding and jubilant soul. It is the spirit of God pronouncing his works good. But prayer as a means to effect a private end is theft and meanness. It supposes duality and not unity in nature and consciousness. As soon as the man is at one with God, he will not beg. He will then see prayer in all action. The prayer of the farmer kneeling in his field to weed it, the prayer of the rower kneeling with the stroke of his oar, are true prayers heard throughout nature, though for cheap ends.

Caratach, in Fletcher's Bonduca, when admonished to inquire the mind of the god Audate, replies,. Another sort of false prayers are our regrets. Discontent is the want of self-reliance; it is infirmity of will. Regret calamities if you can thereby help the sufferer; if not, attend your own work and already the evil begins to be repaired.

Our sympathy is just as base. We come to them who weep foolishly and sit down and cry for company, instead of imparting to them truth and health in rough electric shocks, putting them once more in communication with the soul. The secret of fortune is joy in our hands. Welcome evermore to gods and men is the self-helping man.

For him all doors are flung wide. Him all tongues greet, all honors crown all, all eyes follow with desire. Our love goes out to him and embraces him because he did not need it. We solicitously and apologetically caress and celebrate him because he held on his way and scorned our disapprobation.

The gods love him because men hated him. As men's prayers are a disease of the will, so are their creeds a disease of the intellect. They say with those foolish Israelites, 'Let not God speak to us, lest we die.

Speak thou, speak any man with us, and we will obey. Every new mind is a new classification. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power, a Locke, a Lavoisier, a Hutton, a Bentham, a Spurzheim, it imposes its classification on other men, and lo! In proportion always to the depth of the thought, and so to the number of objects it touches and brings within reach of the pupil, in his complacency.

But chiefly in this apparent in creeds and churches, which are also classifications of some powerful mind acting on the great elemental thought of Duty and man's relation to the Highest.

Such is Calvinism, Quakerism, Swedenborgianism. The pupil takes the same delight in subordinating everything to the new terminology that a girl does who has just learned botany in seeing a new earth and new seasons thereby. This will continue until he has exhausted his master's mind. But in all unbalanced minds the classification is idolized, passes for the end and not for a speedily exhaustible means, so that the walls of the system blend to their eye in the remote horizon with the walls of the universe; the luminaries of heaven seem to them hung on the arch their master built.

Let them chirp awhile and call it their own. If they are honest and do well, presently their neat new pinfold will be too strait and low, will crack, will lean, will rot and vanish, and the immortal light, all young and joyful, million-orbed, million-colored, will beam over the universe as on the first morning.

It is for want of self-culture that the idol of Traveling, the idol of Italy, of England, of Egypt, remains for all educated Americans.

They who made England, Italy, or Greece venerable in the imagination, did so not by rambling round creation as a moth round a lamp, but by sticking fast where they were, like an axis of the earth. In manly hours we feel that duty is our place and that the merry men of circumstance should follow as they may. The soul is no traveler: I have no churlish objection to the circumnavigation of the globe for the purposes of art, of study, and benevolence, so that the man is first domesticated, or does not go abroad with the hope of finding somewhat greater than he knows.

He who travels to be amused or to get somewhat which he does not carry, travels away from himself, and grows old even in youth among old things. In Thebes, in Palmyra, his will and mind have become old and dilapidated as they. He carries ruins to ruins. Traveling is a fool's paradise.

We owe to our first journeys the discovery that place is nothing. At home I dream that at Naples, at Rome, I can be intoxicated with beauty and lose my sadness. I pack my trunk, embrace my friends, embark on the sea and at last wake up in Naples, and there beside me is the stern Fact, and sad self, unrelenting, identical, that I fled from.

I seek the Vatican and the palaces. I affect to be intoxicated with sights and suggestions, but I am not intoxicated. My giant goes with me wherever I go. But the rage of traveling is itself only a symptom of a deeper unsoundness affecting the whole intellectual action. The intellect is vagabond , and the universal system of education fosters restlessness. Our minds travel when our bodies are forced to stay at home. We imitate; and what is imitation but the traveling of the mind?

Our houses are built with foreign taste; our shelves are garnished with foreign ornaments; our opinions, our tastes, our whole minds, lean, and follow the Past and the Distant, as the eyes of a maid follow her mistress.

The soul created the arts wherever they have flourished. It was in his own mind that the artist sought the model. It was an application of his own thought to the thing to be done and the conditions to be observed. And why need we copy the Doric or the Gothic model? Beauty, convenience, grandeur of thought and quaint expression are as near to us as to any, and if the American artist will study with hope and love the precise thing to be done by him, considering the climate, the soil, the length of the day, the wants of the people, the habit and form of the government, he will create a house in which all these will find themselves fitted, and taste and sentiment will be satisfied also.

Insist on yourself; never imitate. Your own gift you can present every moment with the cumulative force of a whole life's cultivation; but of the adopted talent of another you have only an extemporaneous half possession.

That which each can do best, none but his Maker can teach him. No man yet knows what it is, nor can, till that person has exhibited it. Where is the master who could have taught Shakespeare? Where is the master who could have instructed Franklin, or Washington, or Bacon, or Newton? Every great man is an unique. The Scipionism of Scipio is precisely that part he could not borrow.

If anybody will tell me whom the great man imitates in the original crisis when he performs a great act, I will tell him who else than himself can teach him. Shakespeare will never be made by the study of Shakespeare. Do that which is assigned thee and thou canst not hope too much or dare too much. There is at this moment, there is for me an utterance bare and grand as that of the colossal chisel of Phidias, or trowel of the Egyptians, or the pen of Moses or Dante, but different from all of these.

Not possibly will the soul, all rich, all eloquent, with thousands cloven tongue, deign to repeat itself; but if I can hear what these patriarchs say, surely I can reply to them in the same pitch of voice; for the ear and the tongue are two organs of one nature.

Dwell up there in the simple and noble regions of thy life, obey thy heart and thou shalt reproduce the Foreworld again. As our Religion, our Education, our Art look abroad, so does our spirit of society.

All men plume themselves on the improvement of society, and no man improves. It recedes as fast on one side as it gains on the other. Its progress is only apparent like the workers of a treadmill.

It undergoes continual changes; it is barbarous, it is civilized, it is christianized, it is rich, it is scientific; but this change is not amelioration. For every thing that is given something is taken. Society acquires new arts and loses old instincts. What a contrast between the well-clad, reading, writing, thinking American, with a watch, a pencil and a bill of exchange in his pocket, and the naked New Zealander, whose property is a club, a spear, a mat and an undivided twentieth of a shed to sleep under.

But compare the health of the two men and you shall see that his aboriginal strength, the white man has lost. If the traveler tell us truly, strike the savage with a broad ax and in a day or two the flesh shall unite and heal as if you struck the blow into soft pitch, and the same blow shall send the white to his grave.

The civilized man has built a coach, but has lost the use of his feet. He is supported on crutches, but lacks so much support of the muscle. He has got a fine Geneva watch, but he has lost the skill to tell the hour by the sun. A Greenwich nautical almanac he has, and so being sure of the information when he wants it, the man in the street does not know a star in the sky. The solstice he does not observe; the equinox he knows as little; and the whole bright calendar of the year is without a dial in his mind.

His notebooks impair his memory; his libraries overload his wit; the insurance-office increases the number of accidents; and it may be a question whether machinery does not encumber; whether we have not lost by refinement some energy, by a Christianity entrenched in establishments and forms some vigor of wild virtue. For every stoic was a stoic; but in Christendom where is the Christian?

There is no more deviation in the moral standard than in the standard of height or bulk. No greater men are now than ever were. A singular equality may be observed between the great men of the first and of the last ages; nor can all the science, art, religion, and philosophy of the nineteenth century avail to educate greater men than Plutarch's heroes, three or four and twenty centuries ago.

Not in time is the race progressive. Phocion, Socrates, Anaxagoras, Diogenes, are great men, but they leave no class. He who is really of their class will not be called by their name, but be wholly his own man, and in his turn a founder of a sect. The arts and inventions of each period are only its costume and do not invigorate men. The harm of the improved machinery may compensate its good. Hudson and Behring accomplished so much in their fishing-boats as to astonish Parry and Franklin, whose equipment exhausted the resources of science and art.

Galileo, with an opera-glass, discovered a more splendid series of facts than any one since. Columbus found the New World in an undecked boat. It is curious to see the periodical disuse and perishing of means and machinery which were introduced with loud laudation a few years or centuries before.

The great genius returns to essential man. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science, and yet Napoleon conquered Europe by the Bivouac , which consisted of falling back on naked valor and disencumbering it of all aids. The Emperor held it impossible to make a perfect army, says Las Casas, "without abolishing our arms, magazines, commissaries and carriages, until, in imitation of the Roman custom, the soldier should receive his supply of corn, grind it in his hand-mill and bake his bread himself.

Society is a wave. The wave moves onward, but the water of which it is composed does not. The same particle does not rise from the valley to the ridge. Its unity is only phenomenal. The persons who make up a nation today, die, and their experience with them. And so the reliance on Property, including the reliance on governments which protect it, is the want of self-reliance. Men have looked away from themselves and at things so long that they have come to esteem what they call the soul's progress, namely, the religious, learned and civil institutions as guards of property, and they depreciate assaults on property.

They measure their esteem of each other by what each has, and not by what each is. But a cultivated man becomes ashamed of what he has, out of a new respect for his being.

But that which a man is, does always by necessity acquire, and what the man acquires, is permanent and living property, which does not wait the beck of rulers, or mobs, or revolutions, or fire, or storm, or bankruptcies, but perpetually renews itself wherever the man is put. The political parties meet in numerous conventions; the greater the concourse and with each new uproar of announcement, The delegation from Essex! The Democrats from New Hampshire! The Whigs of Maine! In like manner the reformers summon conventions and vote and resolve in multitude.

But not so, O friends! It is only as a man puts off from himself all external support and stands alone that I see him to be strong and to prevail. He is weaker by every recruit to his banner. Is not a man better than a town? Ask nothing of men, and, in the endless mutation, thou only firm column must presently appear the upholder of all that surrounds thee.

He who knows that power is in the soul, that he is weak only because he has looked for good out of him and elsewhere, and, so perceiving, throws himself unhesitatingly on his thought, instantly rights himself, stands in the erect position, commands his limbs, works miracles; just as a man who stands on his feet is stronger than a man who stands on his head.

So use all that is called Fortune. Most men gamble with her, and gain all, and lose all, as her wheel rolls. But do thou leave as unlawful these winnings, and deal with Cause and Effect, the chancellors of God. In the Will work and acquire, and thou hast chained the wheel of Chance, and shalt always drag her after thee. A political victory, a rise of rents, the recovery of your sick or the return of your absent friend, or some other quite external event raises your spirits, and you think good days are preparing for you.

Do not believe it. It can never be so. Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles.

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It was not until s when his place in America's foremost writers was assured. His works are now great masterpieces of emotion that were misunderstood while he was still alive. Another important example is democracy. In medieval times, monarchies and kingdoms ruled the land. Today, the monarch is merely a figurehead behind the power of democracy. At the birth of the democratic rise of the United States of America, the colonists were thought of as upstart fools- dreamers believing the impossible.

English royalists were aghast at the indignation of the colonies to separate from England and form their own country. Oct 29, Renee rated it it was amazing Shelves: Most men gamble with her, and gain all, and lose all, as her wheel rolls. But do thou leave as unlawful these winnings, and deal with Cause and Effect, the chancellors of God. In the Will work and acquire, and thou hast chained the wheel of Chance, and shalt sit hereafter "Ne te quaesiveris extra. In the Will work and acquire, and thou hast chained the wheel of Chance, and shalt sit hereafter out of fear from her rotations.

A political victory, a rise of rents, the recovery of your sick, or the return of your absent friend, or some other favorable event, raises your spirits, and you think good days are preparing for you. Do not believe it. Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles. Nov 19, Kathryn rated it it was amazing Shelves: I'm a huge Emerson fan and, while many do not consider him the finest in terms of literary merit though I enjoy his prose and he himself felt Thoreau would be more the poetic prophet of Transcendentalism, Emerson's style and philosophy are dear to my heart.

PS I read many other misc. May 18, Justin Tyler rated it it was amazing. The essay "Self-Reliance" has been immensely important to me. If ever you are going through tough times, or feel that you are not being treated as well as you deserve, or fear that you are too dependent on another person for your happiness, or are just wondering about what it really means to have personal identity, read this essay. Sep 17, Claudia rated it really liked it Shelves: Emerson's essays are best read when: A You're of the thought that the world can transcend its troubles, be changed for the better, and that you, personally, can be the agent of much of the change.

B You've become older and jaded and need to be reminded that at one time you thought the world could be changed for the better and that you could be the agent of much of the change. Aug 21, Matt rated it really liked it Shelves: So dense yet lucid and poetic and rigorous I've been coming back to this stuff for years in short but deeply felt dives into Emerson's humming catacombs.

I do believe what Bloom says when he calls Ralphie-boy "the mind of America" Feb 03, Seth Hanson rated it it was amazing. My personal philosophy of life is largely grounded in the ideals that are so well articulated and espoused in this short work. It's like scripture to me. Feb 09, Kevin Wooden rated it really liked it.

Have I ever really had an original thought? Very inspirational and also very challenging. Jul 10, Sarah Zitwer rated it really liked it. The audiobook route was a little rough for me, otherwise 5 stars. May 30, Danny rated it it was amazing Shelves: These essays are life-changing; they shaped the American mind and imagination in the s and 40s and continue to be at the heart of what it means to be an American.

Our day of dependence, our long apprenticeship to the learning of other lands, draws to a close. The Scholar, in his ideal form, represents Man Thinking.

Through observations of its intricate patterns, the scholar is inspired to intellectual activity. He learns to organize and classify all that he observes in the natural world, which sharpens his analytical skills. A problem arises when one uncritically relies on the teachings and thinking of the past. One accepts vast systems that have been generated by great men and implicitly trusts to their authority, forgetting that great men of the past were once just fallible young men sitting in libraries and writing.

Moreover, you must think for yourself. Action is what the scholar typically subordinates to thought, but this is a grave mistake. Great men do not come from purposeless study: The scholar has to pay a heavy price for his choice of profession. He must spend long period of time in preparation, must be marginalized and disdained, be lonely misunderstood, and often impoverished.

The reward, however, is great: He is to find consolation in exercising the highest functions of human nature. He is one who raises himself from private considerations and breathes and lives on public and illustrious thoughts. He is to resist the vulgar prosperity that retrogrades ever into barbarism, by preserving and communicating heroic sentiments, noble biographies, melodious verse, and the conclusions of history.

Give me insight into to-day, and you may have the antique and future worlds. What would we really know the meaning of? The meal in the firkin; the milk in the pan; the ballad in the street; the news of the boat; the glance of the eye; the form and the gait of the body;—show me the ultimate reason of these matters; show me the sublime presence of the highest spiritual cause lurking, as always it does lurk, in these suburbs and extremities of nature; let me see every trifle bristling with the polarity that ranges it instantly on an eternal law; and the shop, the plow, and the ledger referred to the like cause by which light undulates and poets sing;—and the world lies no longer a dull miscellany and lumber-room, but has form and order: The spirit of the American freeman is already suspected to be timid, imitative, tame.

Public and private avarice make the air we breathe thick and fat. The scholar is decent, indolent, complaisant. See already the tragic consequence. The mind of this country, taught to aim at low objects, eats upon itself. There is no work for any one but the decorous and the complaisant. Young men of the fairest promise, who begin life upon our shores, inflated by the mountain winds, shined upon by all the stars of God, find the earth below not in unison with these, but are hindered from action by the disgust which the principles on which business is managed inspire, and turn drudges, or die of disgust, some of them suicides.

What is the remedy? They did not yet see, and thousands of young men as hopeful now crowding to the barriers for the career do not yet see, that if the single man plant himself indomitably on his instincts, and there abide, the huge world will come round to him. A few themes emerge: The self-reliant man defines his own responsibilities and lives up to them. He works hard, and in doing so, reveals his true nature to others.

For Emerson there is a sacredness to our idlest reveries and roving thoughts because they are the expression of intuition and the real self. When a man lives with God, his voice shall be as sweet as the murmur of the brook and the rustle of the corn. He has an independent air of nonchalance. Those who rely on others to tell them what their duties are and who conform to the passes have a perpetual disingenuousness about them.

Firstly, the growling multitude, which by their sheer number overwhelm us by the sheer pressure of their size: The second obstacle to self-trust is consistency: This is perfectly ok. The third obstacle to self-trust is the tyranny of the past, exerting its influence on us. This we must overcome, realizing the authority of our own innermost thought.

Society gets in the way of our trusting our inner impulses, as it is constantly appealing to us and pressuring us to away from our natural responses. The self-reliant pray differently. They do not look abroad to some foreign force. They find Spirit in themselves. It is the spirit pronouncing his works good. The self-reliant eschews the superstition of gratuitous travel—the idea that another place will bring them fulfillment and happiness.

The same goes for the intellect. Just as the man who thinks he can find riches only be going abroad, the intellectual who studies only the culture of foreign places and ideas, rejecting his own circumstances, is not free. We have become so dependent on the conveniences of society that we no longer know how to think for ourselves: He is supported on crutches, but lacks so much support of muscle.

He stands among partial men for the complete man, and apprises us not of his wealth, but of the common wealth. Banks and tariffs the newspaper and caucus, methodism and unitarianism, are flat and dull to dull people, but rest on the same foundations of wonder as the town of Troy, and the temple of Delphos, and are as swiftly passing away. Our logrolling, our stumps and their politics, our fisheries, our Negroes, and Indians, our boats, and our repudiations, the wrath of rogues, and the pusillanimity of honest men, the northern trade, the southern planting, the western clearing, Oregon, and Texas, are yet unsung.

Yet America is a poem in our eyes; its ample geography dazzles the imagination, and it will not wait long for metres. Emerson acknowledges the uncertainty and unreliability of experience the way our perceptions and even deepest attachments are illusory and fleeting. Our experience is colored by our ever-changing moods and circumstances. However, whereas the unreliability of everyday experience leads some to dishonor it and grow indifferent to it and leads others into over-analysis , Emerson urges us not to get caught in these traps.

He exhorts us to act and do what the work we feel we must do and not. We find ourselves in the middle of journey, not knowing where we will end up. We are likely to incorrectly assess he importance of a particular phase in our lives. What seems important now may turn out to be purposeless in retrospect, just as what appears to be idleness my appear to be crucial to our development in the future.

Life is a train of moods like a string of beads, and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue, and each shows only what lies in its focus. We want to anchor ourselves in something solid, but life is circulation. Are relationships to the things around us are always shifting.

Emerson notes who he was devoted to Montaigne and Goethe and Shakespeare at different times but ultimately tired of them and moved on. Not only is our knowledge of ourselves limited, we find ourselves often without enough energy to pursue creative projects.

There are many geniuses who are too apathetic or sensitive to bother with the whole rigmarole of creation and production. Their powers dissolve in their apathy: We see young men who owe us a new world, so readily and lavishly they promise, but they never acquit their debt; they die young and dodge the account; or if they live they lose themselves in the crowd.

Yet Emerson exhorts us not to overthink life, with all its uncertainties: Its chief good is for well-mixed people who can enjoy what they find, without question. We live amid surfaces, and the true art of life is to skate well on them. Everything good is on the highway. Emerson urges us not to get caught up in this and act: All of the best things in life—our greatest experience and most winning impulses—are casual, born of spontaneous impulses.

Mar 15, Franta rated it really liked it. There is something which you can do better than another. Listen to the inward voice and bravely obey that.

Do the things at which you are great, not what you were never made for. Jul 24, Abigail rated it liked it Shelves: Okay so I really have not read this entire book. I only read Self-Reliance and not the other essays becasue it was for school, and I have sooo many other books to read that I just cannot read the other essays maybe some other time though.

Dec 25, Adam rated it liked it Shelves: Emerson's transcendental philosophy is interesting in how it sidesteps a lot of the problems associated with similar views. Though very similar in its emphasis on the power of the imagination to Romanticism, and though Emerson makes some really outrageous claims, he has a manner of writing and argumentation that is so assured and clear that sometimes it doesn't matter that he's wrong, or at least limited, because he's inspiring in his wrongness, and wrong only in a rigorous philosophical sense.

Emerson, in several of these pieces, taps directly into the vein that would produce many of America's greatest and least pretentious artists. Jan 04, Debi rated it liked it Shelves: Many of Emerson's ideas, are existent in most every sector of society, especially individualism

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Discontent is the want of self-reliance: it is infirmity of will. Regret calamities, if you can thereby help the sufferer; if not, attend your own work, and already the evil begins to be repaired. Our sympathy is just as base.

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Published first in in Essays and then in the revised edition of Essays, "Self-Reliance" took shape over a long period of time. Throughout his life, Em.

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Short Essay on Self-Reliance Category: Blog On November 20, By Vinay Gupta Meaning: Self-reliance is the habit of relying on one’s own powers and abilities in the midst of difficulties and dangers. Free self-reliance papers, essays, and research papers.

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Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Self-Reliance and Other Essays has 15, ratings and reviews. HeatRush said: Ralph Waldo Emerson is the greatest writer who ever lived. I carry his /5.