The Enlightenment was a time when human beings pulled themselves out of the medieval pits of mysticism. It was a spontaneous and defused movement which fed on itself and led to the great scientific discoveries from which we all benefit today. Beliefs in natural law and universal order sprung up, which not only promoted scientific findings and advancements of a material nature; but, which, also drove the great political thinkers of the time, such as: The people, of all things, were refusing to pay taxes and they were becoming belligerent.
Edward was getting advise to the effect that it might be better to sit down with the people, or rather their representatives, than to let loose the royal troops. Letting the troops loose would be an act which would destroy the country's riches, a share of which the king wanted for himself. Thus, we would have seen the royal messenger riding out from the king's castle to deliver this royal writ to the sheriff of Northhampton. This royal writ of Edward's had the Latin words, elegi facis , meaning that the persons who were to sit on the people's Council the beginnings of parliament were to be elected headmen such as the burgesses and knights, and they were to have "full and sufficient power for themselves and the communities" which they represent; they were to come to Council -- ready, to conduct and to conclude the important business of the land.
Now, one of the most fundamental questions of politics - whether of , or of modern day - is this: Should the representative, sent to the legislature -- assuming, in the first place, that he or she has canvassed the subject to be voted upon and all the far flung consequences of it -- vote the way the majority of his constituents would have him vote; or, should he vote on the basis of what he thinks is right, no matter that it may run against the majority of what his constituents would like.
Edmund Burke , a most brilliant political thinker, thought that the representative should vote his conscience. It should be remembered, too, that any decision made and action taken in an assembly of "our" representatives can be done on the barest majority of a group; which might have been elected on the barest majority of a popular vote; which majority of a popular vote, might well, and usually does, represent a minority of the population.
How can it ever be stated that any particular government measure will accord with the wishes of the majority? Such people in these earlier centuries existed in predominate numbers. Sadly, yet today, even as the 21st century dawns, it is rare, even in the western democracies, to find many people who are independently working through for themselves and taking fixed positions on important political concepts such as democracy, freedom and government.
For democracy to work there must, as a prerequisite, be a people educated and be a people ready to inform themselves of the great issues which face them. Unfortunately, a politically educated public, this important ingredient to the proper working of democracy, is missing.
First off, it must be recognized, that the country is not run, at least not in between elections, with the executive checking with the people by way of referenda as the Swiss do. However, the people who possess government power and who would like to keep it, are bound to proceed on the basis of popular opinion; the difficulty is that public opinion arises as a result of an agenda which is set by minority groups to which vote chasing politicians cow, a process which is generally aided and abetted by an ignorant press.
Like a fish to water, democracy can only exists in a total atmosphere of freedom of action; it is completely incompatible with a system that provides for a governing authority with coercive power. If one accepts anarchists, for example, do not that a government, to some extent or other, is necessary for a civilized society, then it is to be recognized that the business of governing as apart from the business of electing representatives cannot be conducted in democratic matter.
Lippmann deals with this problem: Our government experts must be cross-examined and asked if they have any interest in the outcome? The answer is that most of them do -- if, for no other reason, than they are in the pay of the government, as either; bureaucrats, lodged in the upper end of the government echelon; or those resting in publicly funded universities; or those who are in the social welfare business.
The result of the syndrome is predictable, for, as the public conflict grows, people come to doubt expert pronouncements. Normally people primarily judge the propositions before them in a most obvious way, by their source. For example, "Of course she claims oil spills are harmless - she works for Exxon. In the days prior to , great large populated areas, for example, Manchester in England, were not represented by a seat in parliament; while little villages, particularly in the south of England, had a seat, sometimes more than one.
While some of the larger county seats were somewhat democratic, the little southern village seats were totally in the pockets of the local lords. All that I can see of democracy's role is to put into place those people; who, in a very general way, represent the views of the majority, or rather the views of the party to whom they owe their advancement. This of course is a recipe for the oppression of the minorities no matter from which strata of society they come; and, no matter whether any particular individual from within society likes the party policies, or not.
Thus, democracy, as past experience will demonstrate, works only where the population shares, fundamentally, the same goals and aspirations. Historically, God and country have been the two banners under which the great masses could proudly stand; but, in a modern society, God and country mean less and less, while, at the same time, the goals and aspirations of various groups increase and diverge. It maybe that democracy is, and, indeed, has always been, unworkable; but we must continue to hold the ideal high and see to it that its trappings are securely fixed in place as, well -- as a bulwark, such as it is, against tyrannical rule.
The reality is that we are forever fixed with a oligarchy government of the few masquerading as a democracy. The purpose of the ruling few is to execute its constitutional functions, which, because democracy is unworkable, should be tightly circumscribed. The ideal of democracy is to be promoted, as it has been, to the rulers and the ruled, as a sacred icon; never mind that it cannot be used to put a society into action, to pass laws, and never mind that it rarely will cast up honest and wise leaders; it is, in the final analysis, a system that will routinely and expensively rotate those in charge; a manner of bloodlessly changing the guard.
The roots of democracy and freedom for all "western" democracies are planted in the rich history of Britain beginning with the Magna Carta. Enough to point out that when Captain Christopher Jones and his officers, together with their crew and their passengers disembarked from the Mayflower , in December of , the pilgrims drew up a compact that provided for the government of the colony by the will of the majority. Human rights , a subject I deal with elsewhere, came about only through deep and long struggles culminating in historical declarations such as the Magna Carta and the Petition of Right , "A man cannot be compelled to give evidence against himself" ; but it is only with English Bill of Rights in that we see any real progress in the evolution of law designed to protect the "rights" of the normal citizen.
With the defeat of James at the Battle of the Boyne , the claim of divine right or hereditary right independent of law was formally brought to an end. Ever since, an English monarch is "as much the creature of an act of parliament as the pettiest tax-gatherer in his realm. Liberty Press, 3rd Ed. John Buchanan The Nobel Laureate in Economic Science in and Gordon Tullock in their work, The Calculus of Consent , have shown in an "irrefutable way that whenever a minority is well organized and determined to bribe as many voters as necessary in order to have a majority ready to pass a desired decision, the majority rule works much more in favour of such minorities than is commonly supposed.
The harsher climate of the northern counties was associated with a ruder, a sterner, and a sparser people. Peter Landry peteblu blupete. Box , Dartmouth, Nova Scotia.
Bill of Rights History. Latin Maxims of Law. Expanded Bill of Rights. Proxy Voting for House. Repeal State Bar Acts. National ID or Circles of It depends on you, how nicely you handle problems. Never fear problems in the way of your study. Have strong determination to tackle problems.
Never decide at first glance that it is difficult. Go ahead and see the improvement. Try, try and try again to make up your deficiencies. Start again with stronger determination. You should not stop if you fail one time, start again. Make stumbling blocks your stepping stones which raise you to success.
Success lies in the ability to stand firm as a rock under all circumstances. Develop the sense of competition. For instance, consider the student in your class who stands first in class and who get higher grades than you.
Has he two brain or four eyes? No, the only reason is that he is more interested in study than you are interested in study. You can get higher marks than him if you think how to make it possible. It means possibility of anything depend on your thinking.
If you think that you can do it, you can surely do it. Have confidence in yourself and work hard. Nothing can divert you from your purpose. Have one successful person as your ideal personality and think how did he become successful? Follow his the way which made him successful.
Meet successful people and talk to them how they succeeded. They give you inspiration. It enhances your interest in your study. You should have the desire to learn. Desire to learn enables you to sacrifice for study and manage time for study.
It enables you to study anywhere, any time. It creates a sense of responsibility in you about study, a sign of success. It puts you in sense of competition to learn more and more. It make you generate new ideas and techniques for study, how to study effectively, how to concentrate, how to manage time for study. In short, it makes study your habit. With such study you can just pass the exam with low grades or sometime you even fail. Aim of study is to get distinction in exam with high grades, which is only possible if you have the love or thirst to learn.
And thanks for this as this is full of advices. The Blog is titled as for BA students but some Ph. Ds have also taken my essays as references in their research papers. Allah may bless you with more wisdom… Thank you so much for writing such a beautiful essay. All of your essays are great. They really helped me in my exams. Thank you again dear. May God give you alot of happiness and success in your life. May God give you more wisdom,knowledge and time so you could write more brilliant essays for us.
Nonetheless, in an equitable government, the economy thrives by permitting free endeavor. Individuals can buckle down for more cash and benefits.
Cash is the primary impetus in a majority rules system. However, a drawback may be somebody that works pretty much as hard and makes the lowest pay permitted by law. In any case, vote based frameworks appear to be all the more financially fruitful those different types of government.
Then again, in a socialist society a man can work endlessly harder than a collaborator and get a similar pay before the days over. This reality has added to the defeat of socialism. At the point when representatives have no motivating force to buckle down, they get to be apathetic at their employments which, thus, drag down the economy.
Majority rule and Comrade Governments do have a couple of essential similarities. The both hold a vote to voice the conclusion of the general population. Be that as it may, most present day comrade fascism does not utilize these votes in favor of decisions. They are directly used to find open disdain or contradicting perspectives, and after that, the mystery police deal with these fugitives. Oversight is utilized as a part of each type of government to conceal privileged insights to hide contradicting sentiments.
The Soviets had finish control over every one of the media, by doing as such individuals just hear politically rectify data. It is an approach to indoctrinate somebody into trusting his or her perspectives. In the Assembled States, the schools here and there choose to boycott media due to what it advances.
It is uncommon to have this occasion happen. An equitable government permits individuals to take an interest in broad daylight undertakings. Majority rules system additionally can permit the general population to run the show.
Democracy is a tender topic for a writer: like motherhood and apple pie it is not to be criticized. One will risk being roundly condemned if he, or she, points out the serious bottleneck that is presented when a community attempts, through the democratic process, to set plans for positive social action.
( WORDS) INTRODUCTION THE WORD DEMOCRACY MERITS DEMERITS CONCLUSION “In a democracy the poor will have more power than the rich, because ther are more of them, and will of the majority is supreme” Aristotle Democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, .
Our previous "essay" feature from March , on democracy. Argentina’s debt saga. Argentina has defaulted again. But a deal with its creditors is not out of the question. Essay on Democracy Introduction. Democracy (majority rule government) and socialism are two of the most extraordinary, yet critical frameworks of .
Essay on Democracy in India Category: Administration in India, Essays, Paragraphs and Articles On February 5, By Ankita Mitra India is . Democracy is defined instructor jrotc resume as a government of the people, by the people and for the people Democracy essays Democracy essay on democracy is almost everywhere in the world.