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❶A Short History of Sinhala Language".

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When his father died, he returned to a vernacular school in Ahangama and subsequently lost interest in schooling. Wickramasinghe began his literary career with the novel Leela and an anthology of essays on literary criticism, Shastriya Lekhana Shortly thereafter he began a campaign to raise literary standards for the Sinhalese reading public with work such as Sahityodaya Katha , Vichara Lipi , Guttila Geetaya and Sinhala Sahityaye Nageema in which he evaluated the traditional literally heritage according to set rules of critical criteria formed by synthesising the best in Indian and western traditions of literary criticism.

Through the s Wickramasinghe dabbled with the double role of literary critic and creative writer. Gamperaliya is widely held as the first Sinhalese novel with a serious intent that compares, in content and technique, with the great novels of modern world literature. The novel depicts the crumbling of traditional village life under the pressure of modernisation. The story of a successful family in a Southern village is used to portray the gradual replacement of traditional economic and social structure of the village by commercial city influence.

Wickramasinghe followed Gamperaliya with Yuganthaya and Kaliyugaya forming a trilogy. After the decay of the traditional life, the story details the rise of the bourgeoisie, with its urban base and entrepreneurial drive, ending with the formation of the labour movement and socialist theology and rise of hopes for a new social order. The trilogy was made into film by the renowned Sri Lankan director Dr.

With the development of a literary criticism movement in the early-'50s, Wickramasinghe presented the works Sahitya Kalava 'The Art of Literature' and Kawya Vicharaya 'The Criticism of Poetry' He received an MBE around this time. Wickramasinghe's most heralded work came in with Viragaya. Due to the significance of its theme and the sophistication of its technique, the novel has come to be hailed as the greatest work of Sinhalese fiction. It follows the spiritual problems of a fragile Sinhalese youth raised in a traditional Buddhist home after being confronted with the spectre of adulthood and the responsibilities that come with it all made more complex with the modernisation of society.

First-person narrative is used to put forth the autobiographical story of the anti-hero in impressionistic vignettes rather than in chronological order. It is a seminal work and spawned a spew of imitators, some good on their own right. Wickramasinghe was an early practitioner of the genre of poetry called nisandas , which ignored the restrictions placed on poetry by the traditional prosodic patterns.

It drew inspiration from the work of Eliot , Pound , Whitman and other western poets and was part of a movement called Peradeniya School. Wickramasinghe's work was Teri Gi The movement dissolved in the s prompted by Wickramasinghe's contention that other writers of the Peradeniya School were not sensitive to cultural traditions and the Buddhist background of Sinhalese society.

He accused Ediriweera Sarachchandra , Gunadasa Amarasekara and others of imitating "decadent" western and post-war Japanese literature and of supporting a nihilistic look on life with cyncial disregard for national tradition. In it the great teacher's change from royal heir in-waiting to philosopher-mendicant is portrayed as being a result of his sympathy to the poor and the downtrodden of society.

Wickramasinghe died on 23 July and his home is now a folk museum. A comprehensive list of publications of Martin Wikramasinghe, [11]. Books translated in to other languages, [12]. Films and television productions, based on Martin Wikramasinghe's books, [13]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Sinhalese is one of the official and national languages of Sri Lanka. Sinhalese, along with Pali , played a major role in the development of Theravada Buddhist literature.

The oldest Sinhalese Prakrit inscriptions found are from the third to second century BCE following the arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka , [9] [10] the oldest extant literary works date from the ninth century. The closest relative of Sinhalese is the Maldivian language. Spoken Sinhalese is easier to learn because it has lost the rigidity and formality of grammar. The name is sometimes glossed as "abode of lions", and attributed to a supposed former abundance of lions on the island.

According to the chronicle Mahavamsa , written in Pali , Prince Vijaya and his entourage merged with two exotic tribes of ancient India present in Lanka , the Yakkha and Naga peoples.

In the following centuries, there was substantial immigration from Eastern India Kalinga , Magadha [14] which led to an admixture of features of Eastern Prakrits.

An example of an Eastern feature is the ending -e for masculine nominative singular instead of Western -o in Sinhalese Prakrit.

There are several cases of vocabulary doublets , e. According to Geiger, Sinhalese has features that set it apart from other Indo-Aryan languages. Some of the differences can be explained by the substrate influence of the parent stock of the Vedda language. Common examples are kola for leaf in Sinhalese and Vedda, dola for pig in Vedda and offering in Sinhalese.

Other common words are rera for wild duck, and gala for stones in toponyms used throughout the island. The grammar lists naramba to see and kolamba fort or harbour as belonging to an indigenous source. Kolamba is the source of the name of the commercial capital Colombo.

In addition to many Tamil loanwords , several phonetic and grammatical features present in neighbouring Dravidian languages , setting today's spoken Sinhalese apart from its Northern Indo-Aryan siblings, bear witness to the close interactions with Dravidian speakers.

However, formal Sinhalese is more similar to Pali and medieval Sinhalese. Some of the features that may be traced to Dravidian influence are —. As a result of centuries of colonial rule, modern Sinhalese contains some Portuguese , Dutch and English loanwords.

It is now spoken by a few families in Macau and in the Macanese diaspora. The language developed first mainly among the descendants of Portuguese settlers who often married women from Malacca and Sri Lanka rather than from neighbouring China , so the language had strong Malay and Sinhalese influence from the beginning.

Sinhalese shares many features common to other Indo-European languages. Shared vocabulary includes the numbers up to ten. Sinhalese spoken in the Southern Province Galle , Matara and Hambantota Districts uses several words that are not found elsewhere in the country; this is also the case for the Central and North-Central Provinces and south-eastern region Uva Province and the surrounding area.

For native speakers all dialects are mutually intelligible, and they might not even realise that the differences are significant. The language of the Vedda people resembles Sinhalese to a great extent, although it has a large number of words which cannot be traced to another language.

The Rodiya use another dialect of Sinhalese. Rodiya used to be a caste in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka no longer recognizes castes. In Sinhalese there is distinctive diglossia , as in many languages of South Asia. The literary language and the spoken language differ from each other in many aspects. The written language is used for all forms of literary texts but also orally at formal occasions public speeches, TV and radio news broadcasts, etc.

As a rule the literary language uses more Sanskrit -based words. The most important difference between the two varieties is the lack of inflected verb forms in the spoken language. The situation is analogous to one where Middle or even Old English would be the written language in Great Britain. The children are taught the written language at school almost like a foreign language. Sinhalese also has diverse slang. Most slang words and terms were regarded as taboo and most were frowned upon as non-scholarly.

However, nowadays Sinhalese slang words and terms, even the ones with sexual references, are commonly used among younger Sri Lankans. The Sinhalese alphabet , Sinhala hodiya , is based on the ancient Brahmi script , as are most Indian scripts. The Sinhalese alphabet is closely related to South Indian Grantha alphabet and Khmer alphabet taken the elements from the related Kadamba alphabet.

The Sinhalese writing system is an abugida , where the consonants are written with letters while the vowels are indicated with diacritics pilla on those consonants, unlike English where both consonants and vowels are full letters, or Urdu where vowels need not be written at all.

There are also a few diacritics for consonants, such as r. Several of these diacritics occur in two forms, which depend on the shape of the consonant letter. Vowels also have independent letters but these are only used at the beginning of words where there is no preceding consonant to add a diacritic to. The complete alphabet consist of 60 letters, 18 for vowels and 42 for consonants. However, only 57 16 vowels and 41 consonants are required for writing colloquial spoken Sinhalese suddha Sinhala.

The rest indicate sounds that have gotten lost in the course of linguistic change, such as the aspirates, are restricted to Sanskrit and Pali loan words. Sinhalese is written from left to right and the Sinhalese character set the Sinhalese script is only used for this one language. They are commonly replaced by p and s is colloquial speech.

The main features marked on Sinhalese nouns are case, number, definiteness and animacy. Sinhalese distinguishes several cases.

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[2] Sinhala Only Policy - Sinhala was the official language of Sri Lanka since they gained independence and only Sinhala was used for administration. - Tamils in government . Contextual translation of "essay" into Sinhala. Human translations with examples: dcdc, රචනා, රචක හාවා, රචිත ජලය, rachanaa.

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