But in shallow water near coast, it get slower and water mass rises up to 50 meters. A tsunami is very much destructive. It can strip coasts of land, uproot trees, wipe out towns. The records of tsunami deaths or disaster are generally not available as they are commonly fixed with earthquake deaths. In the year on 1st Nov. August 27, was another day of disaster. The eruptions from Krakatoa volcano fuelled a tsunami that drowned 36, in western Java and southern Sumatra.
On 23rd August, a tsunami in southern west Philippines killed 8, In another tsunami disaster waves as high as feet, spawned by an earthquake, swept the east coast of Japan in which 27, people died. In the latest tsunami on 26th December, in Indian Ocean caused because of an undersea disturbance which was the result of an 8. It is estimated that more than 1 million people lost their lives and more than this are missing and the total loss must be of hundred of crores.
Tsunami affected India's southern part. In the event of a tsunami, following are answers to the most commonly asked questions: A tsunami is a series of ocean waves generated by sudden movements in the sea floor, landslides, or volcanic activity. In the deep ocean, the tsunami wave may only be a few inches high. The tsunami wave may come gently ashore or may increase in height as it gets closer to shore to become a fast moving wall of turbulent water several meters high.
Tsunamis are quite rare compared to other hazardous natural events, but they can be just as deadly and destructive. As a result of their rarity, tsunami hazard planning along the US and Canadian west coasts, Alaska and within the Pacific Region is inconsistent.
Even in locations with a history of deadly tsunamis, an adequate level of awareness and preparedness is difficult to achieve. Although a tsunami cannot be prevented, the effect of a tsunami can be reduced through community preparedness, timely warnings, and effective response. NOAA is leading the world in providing tsunami observations and research.
Through innovative programs, NOAA is helping coastal communities prepare for possible tsunamis to save lives and protect property. When tsunami activity is detected, NOAA issues tsunami watch, warning, and information bulletins to appropriate emergency officials and the general public by a variety of communication methods. The warning includes predicted tsunami arrival times at selected coastal communities within the geographic area defined by the maximum distance the tsunami could travel in a few hours.
If a significant tsunami is detected, the tsunami warning is extended to the entire Pacific Basin. For example, the State of Hawaii is addressing tsunami risk through the Hazard Education and Awareness Tool HEAT , a Web site template that uses Google Maps technology, spatial hazard data, and preparedness information to help increase awareness of coastal hazards.
HEAT project partners in Hawaii include state and local planning and civil defense officials, the Red Cross and other disaster relief agencies. Develop a Family Disaster Plan. Learn about tsunami risk in your community. Find out if your home, school, workplace or other frequently visited locations are in tsunami hazard areas. Know the height of your street above sea level and its distance from the coast or other high-risk waters. Evacuation orders may be based on these numbers. Find out if your community is Tsunami Ready.
If you are visiting an area at risk from tsunamis, check with the hotel, motel, or campground operators for tsunami evacuation information and how you would be warned. If possible, pick an area feet above sea level or go up to two miles inland, away from the coastline. Every foot inland or upwards may make a difference. Familiarity may save your life. Be able to follow your escape route at night and during inclement weather. Practicing your plan makes the appropriate response more instinctive, requiring less thinking during an actual emergency situation.
The tone alert feature will warn you of potential danger even if you are not currently listening to local radio or television stations. Ask about the National Flood Insurance Program. Everyone should know what to do in case all family members are not together. Discussing the dangers of tsunamis and your evacuation plans ahead of time will help reduce fear and anxiety, and let everyone know how to respond.
Review flood safety and preparedness measures with your family. Prepare a supply kit equipped to sustain you and your family for about a week and make sure it is readily accessible in case you need to take quick action. Sheltering your pet or evacuating it with you can have an effect on your overall plan.
You may need to take special steps to make sure your pet is safe before, during, and after the disaster. When local and state officials issue warnings and evacuation notices, adhere to their directions and implement your disaster plan immediately. Tsunami Ready helps community leaders and emergency managers strengthen their local operations. Tsunami Ready communities are better prepared to save lives through better planning, education and awareness.
Communities have fewer fatalities and property damage if they plan before a tsunami arrives. No community is tsunami proof, but Tsunami Ready can help minimize loss to your community.
Looking at the history globally Japan has suffered from repeated tsunami-caused damage, and massive tsunamis are anticipated as a result of mega-thrust earthquakes such as the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. PARI and other institutions have conducted research on tsunami disaster prevention and mitigation.
The experimental studies involve the development of facilities combining a geotechnical centrifuge and a tsunami flume. We develop countermeasures to control damage of structures caused by tsunamis exceeding the design parameters, performance verification methods to predict structure displacement, and hardware technologies to reduce tsunami energy,. In addition to a real-time tsunami hazard mapping technology, we are developing an evacuation simulator to ensure early evacuation.
We also explore ship motions induced by tsunami attacks, and consider safer procedures for ship evacuation. Moreover, we review scenario creation techniques including early recovery of ports, and promote practical use of such scenarios.
Hydraulic model experiments were carried out to study the mechanisms of destruction of breakwaters in order to establish resilient structures to tsunamis higher than the design tsunami, given the damage caused by tsunamis in the Great East Japan Earthquake. At the same time, model experiments were carried out to examine the mechanisms in the destruction of embankments, parapets, coastal dikes, and tsunami evacuation buildings.
Furthermore, we carried out model experiments to study the behavior of and countermeasures against containers and other objects washed away by tsunamis. The mathematical simulation model of Storm Surge and Tsunami Simulator in Oceans and Coastal areas STOC developed by PARI were improved to enable computation of wave breaking of tsunamis and scouring and topographical changes to ports caused by tsunamis.
The model was successfully validated in comparison with the tsunamis striking in Kuji Port and Hachinohe Port especially at the catastrophic event in Furthermore, we elucidated the behavior of ships affected by the tsunami at Kashima Port through analysis of Automatic Identification System AIS data and identification of issues surrounding calculations of ship drift through numerical simulations.
In regard to mitigating damage from tsunamis, we implemented instant tsunami inundation forecasting technology real time tsunami hazard mapping , using offshore tsunami measurement data acquired through GPS-equipped buoys, in a pilot site of Nagoya Port. We demonstrated that it is possible to forecast inundation area in Nagoya Port approximately two minutes after measurement of the peak of the first tsunami wave by the GPS-equipped buoys.
These results were reported to the investigative commission on utilizing offshore wave detection systems set up by the Chubu Regional Bureau. In regard to restoration and rehabilitation after being struck by tsunamis, simulations of the expected tsunami propagation, inundation, and drifting of ships and containers were carried out using STOC, in Shimizu Port.
Simulations took the subsidence of breakwaters into account in predicting potential damage caused by tsunamis, based on Cabinet Office assumptions of what a Nankai Trough Earthquake would be like.
A tsunami is a large ocean wave that is caused by sudden motion on the ocean floor. This sudden motion could be an earthquake, a powerful volcanic eruption, or an underwater landslide. The impact of a large meteorite can also cause a tsunami.
Tsunamis travel across the open ocean at great speeds and convert into large deadly waves in the shallow water of a shoreline. Most tsunamis are caused by earthquakes generated in a subduction zone, an area where an oceanic plate is being forced down into the mantle by tectonic plate forces.
The friction between the subducting plate and the overriding plate is enormous. As the stuck plate continues to descend into the mantle the motion causes a slow distortion of the overriding plate. The result is an accumulation of energy very similar to the energy stored in a compressed spring. Energy can accumulate in the overriding plate over a long period of time—decades or even centuries. Energy accumulates in the overriding plate until it exceeds the frictional forces between the two stuck plates.
When this happens, the overriding plate snaps back into an unrestrained position. At the same time, inland areas of the overriding plate are suddenly lowered.
The moving wave begins travelling out from where the earthquake has occurred. Some of the water travels out across the ocean basin, and, at the same time, water rushes towards the land to flood the recently lowered shoreline. Tsunamis are commonly generated by earthquakes in marine and coastal regions. They frequently occur in the Pacific, where dense oceanic plates slide under the lighter continental plates. Because each earthquake is unique, every tsunami has unique wavelengths, wave heights and directionality.
From a tsunami-warning perspective, this makes the problem of forecasting tsunamis in real time daunting. By far, the most destructive tsunamis are generated from large, shallow earthquakes with an epicentre or fault line near or on the ocean floor. These usually occur in regions of the earth characterized by tectonic subduction along tectonic plate boundaries. The high seismicity of such regions is caused by the collision of tectonic plates. When these plates move past each other, they cause large earthquakes, which tilt, offset, or displace large areas of the ocean floor from a few kilometres to as much as a 1, km or more.
The waves can travel great distances from the source region, spreading destruction along their path. For example, the Great Chilean tsunami was generated by a magnitude 8. Its waves were destructive not only in Chile, but also as far away as Hawaii, Japan and elsewhere in the Pacific. It should be noted that not all earthquakes generate tsunamis. One of the largest and most destructive tsunamis ever recorded was generated on August 26, after the explosion and collapse of the volcano of Krakatoa Krakatau , in Indonesia.
This explosion generated waves that reached feet, destroyed coastal towns and villages along the Sunda Strait in both the islands of Java and Sumatra, killing 36, people. It is also believed that the destruction of the Minoan civilization in Greece was caused in B. Less frequently, tsunami waves can be generated from displacement of water resulting from rock falls, icefalls and sudden submarine landslides or slumps. Such events may be caused impulsively from the instability and sudden failure of submarine slopes, which are sometimes triggered by the ground motions of a strong earthquake.
Major earthquakes are suspected to cause many underwater landslides, which may contribute significantly to tsunami generation. For example, many scientists believe that the tsunami, which killed thousands of people and destroyed coastal villages along the northern coast of Papua-New Guinea, was generated by a large underwater slump of sediments, triggered by an earthquake.
In general, the energy of tsunami waves generated from landslides or rock falls is rapidly dissipated as they travel away from the source and across the ocean, or within an enclosed or semi-enclosed body of water—such as a lake or a fjord. However, it should be noted that the largest tsunami wave ever observed anywhere in the world was caused by a rock fall in Lituya Bay, Alaska on July 9, Triggered by an earthquake along the Fairweather fault, an approximately 40 million cubic metre rock fall at the head of the bay generated a wave, which reached the incredible height of metre wave 1, feet on the opposite side of the inlet.
An initial huge solitary wave of about metres feet raced at about kilometres per hour mph within the bay debarking trees along its path. Fortunately, for mankind, it is indeed very rare for a meteorite or an asteroid to reach the earth.
No asteroid has fallen on the earth within recorded history. This is indicated by large craters, which have been found in different parts of the earth. Also, it is possible that an asteroid may have fallen on the earth in prehistoric times—the last one some 65 million years ago during the Cretaceous period. Since, the evidence of the fall of meteorites and asteroids on earth exists, we must conclude that they have also fallen in the oceans and seas of the earth, particularly since four-fifths of our planet is covered by water.
On both sides of the Atlantic, coastal cities would be washed out by such a tsunami. An asteroid kilometres in diameter impacting between the Hawaiian Islands and the West Coast of North America, would produce a tsunami which would wash out the coastal cities on the West coasts of Canada, U.
However, no tsunami of any significance has ever resulted from the testing of nuclear weapons in the past. Furthermore, such testing is presently prohibited by international treaty. However, neither seismometers nor coastal tide gauges provide data that allow accurate prediction of the impact of a tsunami at a particular coastal location.
Monitoring earthquakes gives a good estimate of the potential for tsunami generation, based on earthquake size and location, but gives no direct information about the tsunami itself.
Essay on Tsunami The Natural Disaster. Tsunami is a Japanese name for 'harbour waves' generally called tidal waves but actually tsunami has nothing to do with tides. Essay on Tsunami The Natural Disaster.
Essay # 2. Causes of Tsunami: The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea.
- Australia & The World Tsunami essay The Boxing Day Tsunami in the Asian region was a devastating event for the Region and the World alike and will go down in history as one of the worst widespread events the World has seen in recent years. Tsunamis essaysAll around the world natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tornadoes, and hurricanes, are waiting to strike like a time bomb waiting to explode. Once unleashed, these natural disasters could become deadly. One of nature's tremendous natural disasters is the great wa.
Essay # biuiawjdh.gag of Tsunami: The phenomenon we call tsunami is a series of large waves of extremely long wavelength and period usually generated by a violent, impulsive undersea disturbance or activity near the coast or in the ocean. 1. Essay on Tsunami Asian Tsunami: Series of Waves Created. Asian Tsunami A tsunami is a series of waves created when lots of water, like an ocean, is very quickly displaced it can cause lots of destruction.