Qualitative data requires an inductive approach of analysis. On the other hand quantitative data uses deductive approach. However, there should be some consistency between methods, methodology and analysis. This is important in order to demonstrate logic. Thus, in order to make the research credible to the reader the research should lead towards the research findings. It places great emphasis on the methods used to collect or generate data.
However, it places less emphasis on the analytical techniques to interpretation of data. Therefore, it is widely used for analysing qualitative data.
The inductive approach includes:. It does not focus on testing hypothesis. Thematic analysis can either realistically present experiences, meaning and the reality of participants. This can also be used to examine the effects of those experiences, events and realities operating within society.
Descriptive statistics helps to draw inferences about populations and to estimate the parameters Trochim Inferential statistics are based on the descriptive statistics and the assumptions that generalise the population from a selected sample Trochim Deductive approach is popularly used as it enables the research to reason from generic to specific. In order to facilitate a more comprehensive study, researchers should have access to all available research tools.
The dichotomy therefore should be reconsidered and researchers should become proficient in both type of approaches. It describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researcher s , the stages of research, and the method of data analysis.
The ethnographic approach to qualitative research comes largely from the field of anthropology. The emphasis in ethnography is on studying an entire culture. Originally, the idea of a culture was tied to the notion of ethnicity and geographic location e.
That is, we can study the "culture" of a business or defined group e. Ethnography is an extremely broad area with a great variety of practitioners and methods. However, the most common ethnographic approach is participant observation as a part of field research. The ethnographer becomes immersed in the culture as an active participant and records extensive field notes.
As in grounded theory, there is no preset limiting of what will be observed and no real ending point in an ethnographic study. Phenomenology is sometimes considered a philosophical perspective as well as an approach to qualitative methodology.
It has a long history in several social research disciplines including psychology, sociology and social work. Phenomenology is a school of thought that emphasizes a focus on people's subjective experiences and interpretations of the world. This usually, but not always, takes the form of a hypothesis. For example, an anthropological study may not have a specific hypothesis or principle, but does have a specific goal, in studying the culture of a certain people and trying to understand and interpret their behavior.
The whole study is designed around this clearly defined goal, and it should address a unique issue, building upon previous research and scientifically accepted fundamentals. Whilst nothing in science can be regarded as truth, basic assumptions are made at all stages of the research, building upon widely accepted knowledge. Research does require some interpretation and extrapolation of results. In scientific research, there is always some kind of connection between data information gathered and why the scientist think that the data looks as it does.
Often the researcher looks at the data gathered, and then comes to a conclusion of why the data looks like it does. A history paper, for example, which just reorganizes facts and makes no commentary on the results, is not research but a review. If you think of it this way, somebody writing a school textbook is not performing research and is offering no new insights. They are merely documenting pre-existing data into a new format. If the same writer interjects their personal opinion and tries to prove or disprove a hypothesis , then they are moving into the area of genuine research.
Science tends to use experimentation to study and interpret a specific hypothesis or question, allowing a gradual accumulation of knowledge that slowly becomes a basic assumption. For any study, there must be a clear procedure so that the experiment can be replicated and the results verified.
Again, there is a bit of a grey area for observation-based research , as is found in anthropology, behavioral biology and social science, but they still fit most of the other criteria. Planning and designing the experimental method , is an important part of the project and should revolve around answering specific predictions and questions. This will allow an exact duplication and verification by independent researchers, ensuring that the results are accepted as real.
Most scientific research looks at an area and breaks it down into easily tested pieces. The gradual experimentation upon these individual pieces will allow the larger questions to be approached and answered, breaking down a large and seemingly insurmountable problem, into manageable chunks.
True research never gives a definitive answer but encourages more research in another direction. Even if a hypothesis is disproved, that will give an answer and generate new ideas, as it is refined and developed. Research is cyclical, with the results generated leading to new areas or a refinement of the original process. The term, research , is much stricter in science than in everyday life.
Research approach can be divided into two groups: inductive and deductive. The relevance of hypotheses to the study is the main distinctive point between.
Pragmatic approach to research (mixed methods) The pragmatic approach to science involves using the method which appears best suited to the research problem and not getting caught up in philosophical debates about which is the best approach.
Research approach is a plan and procedure that consists of the steps of broad assumptions to detailed method of data collection, analysis and interpretation. It is therefore, based on the nature of the research problem being addressed. The Selection of a Research Approach 5 These definitions have considerable information in each one of them. Throughout this book, I discuss the parts of the definitions so that their.
Research Approach The research questions posed above express a need for learning more about the dominant concepts of enterprise modeling as a research domain. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach. Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science.