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❶Biological plausibility is helpful, however.

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The iology and usiness Aspects Alternative medicine industry is one of the latest business opportunities that show rapid progress in the current economy. This type of business becomes a new trend in the world of medicine and modern health care.

Many of the medicines had probably been invented in the traditional health care customs, ages before modern medical management took place. Despite the reality, scientific institutions and pharmaceutical companies are now conducting studies and research to investigate the reliability of the medicines apart from public believes of the remedies' glory in ancient legends of their usages. A number of hospitals and health care centers also have applied alternative medicine treatments in some cases of their patients.

It looks like there is a light for another industry opportunities in here. In this case, the biggest part of the business relies on how rapid the biological researches are conducted and…… [Read More]. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine. However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.

The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy.

In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved.

The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…… [Read More]. Sustainable Distribution for Essential Medicines. Sustainable Distibution fo Essential Medicines in Emeging Makets Business Case Backgound The Sustainable challenge Cuent distibution climate of Cue Phamaceutical The gowing impotance of the emeging makets Baies to gowth Pocuement and Distibution Challenge to oveall sustainability in phamaceutical companies Patneships utilized in emeging makets and essential medicine distibution Suggestions of patneships effective in essential medicine distibution Data gatheing in essential medicine distibution Sustainable distibution fo essential medicines in emeging makets Business Case Backgound This epot addesses the ole phamaceuticals play in emeging makets.

Many people have associated these makets as havens fo explosive futue gowth, but thee ae also seious challenges to be faced. The epot will discuss what views investos, stakeholdes, and company executives hold on emeging makets. Thee ae thee pobable significant factos that may sway thei stance. Fist, the efoms ecently made by the govenment egading phamaceuticals and the obligations of multinationals esulting fom the efoms. In response to economic concerns and a continual…… [Read More].

Complexities of Modern Medicine Have. The current emphasis on wellness as the overall goal of health care has placed considerable pressure on the health care educational system Kreitzer, The wellness emphasis has caused the health care educational system to focus its attention on treating the entire patient and to provide the patient with the maximum amount of choice, quality, convenience, and personal care while maintaining affordability.

This means that medical schools must begin to train more physicians interested in performing primary care services and to direct these physicians to areas of the country that have been traditionally poorly served.

In order to develop an overall system where preventive medicine is practiced so that more serious medical difficulties can be avoided a solid network of primary care providers is necessary. Ideally, these providers would be in the form of licensed physicians but a system that utilizes a hybrid mixture of physicians, physician assistants, and…… [Read More].

Natural Health Practices in Veterinary Medicine. Natural Health Practices in Veterinary Medicine Natural health practices include all health interventions that choose non-medical alternatives such as nutrition, vitamins, herbs, acupuncture, and homeopathy. The basic premise of natural health practices in both animals and humans is that illness is the body's need to dispose of unhealthy cells that are negatively influencing at least one biological system Goldstein, Many of the interventions used are quite similar to those used in human natural health practices.

For example, for both humans and animals, medical practitioners recommend an increase in raw, whole foods to help with general nutritional improvement Goldstein, Veterinarians and animal owners might choose to use natural health method to avoid side effects from drugs or potential risks involved in surgery, or as preventative measures in response to such problems as antimicrobial resistance Mateu and Martin, Nutrition therapy is using what the animal eats to improve its…… [Read More].

Oriental Therapy - Alternative Therapy. There is much irony to be found in the opinion that all illness begins in the mind, because many doctors and alternative healers make this claim but yet are unwilling to admit that psychic illnesses are real. The Japanese people struggle with an honest discussion of psychiatric illnesses, as they often come to their doctors with somatic complaints.

Yes, they may have headaches, stomachaches, or other issues, but it is the goal of the doctor to determine what is causing these problems. Internal medicine doctors should look for physical reasons for these issues, but should also be open to the idea that no physical cause may be found Nolen-Hoeksema, If that is the case, it is possible that the person is depressed, and that mental health counseling can be beneficial Nolen-Hoeksema, Until the stigma of mental health and depression can be removed, however, Japanese people who need treatment…… [Read More].

Healthcare and Medicine in the. The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation Barr and Mark, The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low.

The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…… [Read More]. Allopathic Osteopathic Allopathic approaches in medicine dominate how healthcare is administered in the United States in today's society.

Osteopathy has made some gains in popularity over the decades but it is well established that the majority of today's doctors practice and employ an allopathic approach towards healing their patients. The purpose of this essay is to explore the possible differences in society if allopathic medicine did not develop as the dominant profession but was bifurcated into equal proportions of MDs and DOs.

Salzberg suggested that medical doctors and DO's are not the same thing and a certain deficiency of training is present in doctors of osteopathy. He wrote " are they equal? Osteopathy started out as little more than pseudoscience, based on the mistaken idea that manipulations of the skeleton and muscles -- massage, basically -- would cure disease. It was invented by Andrew Still in…… [Read More]. Records show that traditional Chinese medicine TCM is more than 2, years old, although there exist other written records that date back to 3, years earlier Maclean and Shane and archaeological evidence that suggests it began at least 5, years ago.

Although called traditional, it actually went through a series of changes and adaptations to various influences, such as politics, economics, science, technology and social and cultural alterations, to a point that Western medicine almost replaced it Maclean and Shane , particularly with the fall of the Qing dynasty in It was restored and regained popularity only by the middle 50s and, henceforth, has continued to serve and benefit the Chinese people, as well as the rest of the world today.

TCM is founded on the qi, the natural life force or energy that constitutes everything and everyone in the universe. Xi Yi Tang - man, animals,…… [Read More]. Alterative ways a vague term a group herbs.

Discuss alteratives beneficial, relation body systems support. Alterative is a vague term assigned to an herb which acts as blood purifier, meaning that it gradually modifies the condition of the body in a positive manner.

These plants have been use for centuries in dealing with toxicity of the blood, infections, or arthritis, skin eruptions, and even cancer. Moreover, this category of herbs also helps the body to assimilate nutrients and eliminate waste products of metabolism.

As in the case of administering any sort of medicine, the choice of alterative herb depends upon matching its system-specific properties with the condition which has to be treated.

Therefore, red clover is known to effects on protein assimilation, and is thus employed in cancer, whereas Echinacea is used to fight against acid conditions in the bloodstream associated with a stagnation of lymphatic fluids. In addition, sarsaparilla…… [Read More]. Cranberries Vaccinium Macrocarpon Are Indigenous. Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection.

Epub Apr An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: Complementary Medicine An Argumentative Essay Complementary medicine describes the use of therapies and herbal medicines which are not commonly practiced by doctors.

The term itself refers to getting a medical treatment by doctor and simultaneously getting such therapies so both treatments work together to improve the patient's health. Many of the therapies or herbal medicines have been a part of our lives but most of us do not know that they are under the umbrella term of complementary medicine. Another term is attached to complementary medicine and that is alternative medicine. Alternative medicine is when we use only these herbal medicine or therapies as a treatment instead of conventional medicine, which is commonly practiced by medical.

With the increase in preference of complementary medicine and the requests for it to be used more regularly by patients, it is gradually replacing the term…… [Read More]. Consent in Cam Consent and. They have no formal oversight authority. Practices regarding informed consent are inconsistent. This poses a major concern for patient safety while using CAM. Complimentary and alternative medicine CAM has been criticized for a lack of standards in the delivery of services.

Holexa and Caspi found that this lack of standards extends into the practice of informed consent. Patients often do not have access to proper information during the decision-making process. This increases the potential for healthcare oversights and mistakes. Conclusion When one examines informed consent issues, it is found that they are similar to the issues addressed in conventional therapies.

The Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute has developed a set of informed consent and ethics that it requires member practitioners to follow. An examination of this article reveals that standards require full disclosure of evidence-based research regarding the procedure. It requires confidentiality of the procedure, professional courtesy, peer review…… [Read More]. Cam Therapy According to the. As a result of this impact, religious or spiritual organizations adopt various health beliefs that govern the well-being of their members.

For instance, spirituality helps religious individuals to demonstrate less destructive behaviors like smoking, minimum stress, and improved satisfaction in life. An example of such organizations is Jews for Jesus, which has an estimated number of nearly , members across the globe. The organization is founded on three major core values i. The other major tenet of this spiritual organization is that it focuses on Jewish evangelism, which is a Jewish mission that involves sharing Christ with the unsaved "Core Values," One of the health beliefs of this organization is that physical health is needed for the spiritual well-being of an individual and to carry out the activities of spreading the message of Messiahship…… [Read More].

Popularity of Chinese Traditional Acupuncture in the. Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that treats people by insertion and handling of solid, usually thin needles into the body.

Through its beginnings, acupuncture has been deep-rooted in the notions of Traditional Chinese medicine TCM.

Its general theory is based on the idea that bodily functions are synchronized by the flow of an energy-like entity called qi. Acupuncture tries to right inequities in the flow of qi by stimulus of anatomical locations on or under the skin called acupuncture points, most of which are linked by channels known as meridians. Scientific study has not found any bodily or organic correlate of qi, meridians and acupuncture points, and some modern practitioners needle the body without using an academic structure, instead choosing points because of their tenderness to pressure Acupuncture: Life Before Tylenol and Prozac.

I also made the decision to make citical thinking a pat of this couse, instead of meely focusing on the histoy o technical aspects. I want students to be able to fom thei own opinions about folk medicine based on what they have leaned. Name and descibe one of you pojects stengths.

One of the main stengths of this poject is that it combines fun with fact. In othe wods, it is not just a dy look at the histoy of folk medicine, but it will include inteesting anecdotes and some bizae and funny ituals and pactices as well. I went this diection because I want to keep things inteesting and keep the students engaged. Name and descibe one of my pojects weaknesses. The main weakness of this poject is that it may be difficult to include all of the many aspects of folk medicine in detail…… [Read More].

Acupuncture -- an Overview Briefly. The first reference to the practice of acupuncture is found in the 4,year-old Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, the oldest medical textbook in the world, which was itself a chronicle of much earlier practices to treat circulation, pulse, and heart-related conditions Singer, Acupuncturists can use as many as nine types of needles today, though only six are commonly used. These needles vary in length, width of shaft, and shape of head Singer, Preclinical studies have documented acupuncture's effects, but they have not been able to fully explain how acupuncture works within the framework of the estern system of medicine that is commonly practiced in the United States, as estern medicine does not believe in the concept of energy blockage or ying and yang.

Various theories as to acupuncture's efficacy have been proposed, including the theory that it stimulates pain-killing endorphins, encourages the release of neurotransmitters that promote…… [Read More].

Generally done by drugs, mith and Crowther reviewed the effects of induction that has been impelled by acupuncture which has been historically used to help induce labor and to reduce labor pain. They concluded that clinical evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture as applied to this situation is limited, although some qualitative small studies do suggest that women who receive acupuncture receive fewer methods of induction than do women who receive the standard care of induction.

This article is particularly significant given that we are living in a period when increasingly more people turn to holistic or alternative…… [Read More].

Dramatic New Scientific Discoveries Revealing. Whether these are actually 'miracle cures' is, of course, debatable. However, anything that has few side effects and that benefits a person's health is worth looking into from a medicinal and a scientific standpoint. Many of the natural remedies do carry some potential risk for side effects, but most are not as serious as the side effects that are seen with many prescription medications today. From work like Carper's there is a lot that can be learned.

The most important thing to take away from Carper's book is that there is much more to medicine than what traditional, western doctors commonly work with. Another important point to take from reading this work is that the medicine that was used in the past should not just be tossed aside because there are new advances. The older, natural medicines often worked well for a lot of different conditions, and with that being…… [Read More]. This term refers to therapies used to enhance health that fall outside the realm of conventional or "western" medical therapies.

Southern Medical therapies are often limited to pharmaceutical drugs, surgery, and other interventions that directly affect the body. CAM therapies can simply refer to culturally-based medical practices that are not part of mainstream medicine in the United States. CAM Interventions for prevention of Stress and esilience One of the most widely accepted areas for the use of CAM interventions is in the area of stress reduction, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and other conditions that are common symptoms…… [Read More].

Nutritional Therapies for Ulcerative Colitis. These biologically-based practices of alternative medicine include the use of vitamins, herbs, and food supplements found in nature, chief among which are probiotics: These benign bacteria counteract the presences of the malignant variety, which often cause digestive problems if allowed to overpopulate. Probiotics can be obtained as supplements or found in certain foods, and have been known to prolong periods of remission in ulcerative colitis patients, with no sever side effects.

The use of fish oils is another alternative medicinal treatment for ulcerative colitis. Omega 3 fatty acids are found in certain green vegetables and in nuts, salmon, sardines and herring, as well as in oral supplemental form and are used to treat intestinal inflammation when ulcerative colitis is active. Aloe Vera…… [Read More]. Salvia Officinalis a Literature Review Introduction and.

Salvia Officinalis a Literature eview Introduction and History of Use Salvia officinalis, or sage, is also called garden sage or common sage. The leaves are grayish in color, and the flowers are purple or blue Watters, However, it has now been naturalized in a number of places throughout the world.

Its history is long, mostly detailing both culinary and medicinal uses. Modern times have also seen its popularity rise as an ornamental garden plant Kintzios, There are many other species that also carry the common name "sage.

Sage was first described in by Carl Linnaeus, and has been grown for centuries Sutton, Its healing properties are impressive, and it is also used in the…… [Read More]. Cam Persuading a Hospital to. However, this at least provides patients with an introduction to the therapy, and they can weigh the costs of the treatment against the improvement in their health.

Some may find certain types of CAM, such as yoga, available within their health clubs or other affordable settings. How might technology help you meet your goal? The hospital offers nutritional, exercise, and wellness counseling. Patients can learn about breathing techniques and the use of herbs to combat symptoms. By conducting research on CAM within the framework of a hospital, the institution can make sure that the therapies are undertaken in a safe and supervised manner.

More and more people are turning to CAM as a way to cope with illness and may do so whether their hospital formally encourages them…… [Read More]. Acupuncture Is a Traditional Chinese. There are many estern doctors who do not accept the traditional views and system of acupuncture but they have realized that it has certain effective aspects.

There has also been widespread recognition of the painkilling aspects of acupuncture. Aromatherapy Ecdriesbaugh Aromatherapy Is Considered. The amygdale manages our emotional response to an aroma.

The memory and recognition of smell takes place in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is also where chemicals in an aroma trigger our unique repository of learned memories Though there hasn't been much research, and most studies that have been done were small sample sizes, the healing qualities of aromatherapy look very promising. In , Japanese researchers found that aromatherapy massage using lavender-based products reduced anxiety and stress and was helpful to the immune system.

It was also noted that patients showed a considerable increase in lymphocytes protective blood cells , while showing a decrease in depression.

Another study discovered that the use of aromatherapy after an operation lessoned the patient's feeling of nausea and vomiting. In small studies conducted in nursing homes, aromatherapy has indicated…… [Read More]. Cam Regulatory Overview Natural Products.

The Method is self-regulated, although regulating an educational practice, even one based in movement, could prove unwieldy given how many other movement-based therapies exist that are self-policed like yoga, Pilates, the Alexander technique. Most states require national board certification for TCM practitioners if they are not licensed physicians.

Candidates "must complete at least 2, hours about 4 years of full-time study of didactic and clinic coursework in both acupuncture and Chinese herbal…… [Read More]. Non-adherence is common and results in adverse conditions Ho et al. This is a problem both to patients and heir care providers as well as the healthcare system itself. The solution consists of identifying the causes and motivations of non-adherence and the design and implementation of better interventions to improve adherence Ho et al.

The following studies present and suggest more effective interventions for a variety of health conditions among Afro-Caribbean people who have been reported to have a high level of non-adherence to therapy. This study used a…… [Read More]. Crystal Therapy Crystal Healing and. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet thus correspond to the seven chakras located along the spinal column. The most touted of New Age healing techniques has been the use of crystals.

Enthusiasts claim that because rock crystal is almost entirely devoid of color, it is an almost perfect capacitor of divine white light. Explanations of exactly how crystals wield their healing powers vary from practitioner to practitioner. Some maintain that the unique properties of crystals make them excellent receptors of metaphysical energies. Social Research Research activities, whether empirical, literature review sponsored, descriptive, or historical, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment.

It is vital that the researcher catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done if expected results are to be gained. If this sole tenet can be achieved then the difficulties and frustrations of the research performance, while they never completely vanish, play a much less significant role Ferguson, To the enthused researcher there must be debate, discussion, and even argument if there is to exist intelligent conviction regarding the nature, design analysis, and inferences regarding the phenomenon or topic under investigation Kerlinger, The remainder of this paper will examine two research studies from the perspective of data certification and whether or not the author's have adequately fulfilled the research requirements associated with the principle of data certification.

The two…… [Read More]. Ayurveda and Western Science Compare. The largest difference exists in the basis of the Western holistic treatment and the basis of Ayurveda. The key components of TCM are as follows: Qi pronounced like "chee" - this is the vital energy necessary for life blood, body fluid Zang-Fu - the internal organs; and Jing-Luo: These eight principles are comprised of "four pairs of polarities, including: Business Plan This Business Plan.

The office and administrative expenses would remain constant even to that point, as would the insurance expense. Ahn is receiving will be able to bring in a reasonable salary. The nature of the business may well change at this point. As a result, it is likely that a clinic will be formed with other practitioners in order to minimize expenses and increase profitability.

This means that the income from the company will be rolled into the income for Mr. Ahn, as well as his liabilities. Ahn's personal expenses are therefore not included in…… [Read More]. Traditional Methods of Healing. Malay culture Each society has devised its own methodology of dealing with diseases.

An analytical approach is required to study the contents of the Malay manuscript for understanding it deeply. These are as follows: Natural resources Wafak written symbols Quranic verses for healing purposes and offering respect to prophet P.

Background The roots of…… [Read More]. Cam Assessing Reliability and Credibility. The articles on the website do feature articles on classified subcategories of depression such as bipolarity, major depression, minor depression, and psychotic depression and information about drug treatments and side effects that are legitimately accepted by the medical community.

Compatibility example A website should review CAM and conventional medicine in the same terms Look for slanted advice [Image: Display picture of editorial on Depression website' UL: The website does not claim that alternative treatments should be used to replace conventional medicine. One editorial written by Dr.

Matthews and it is clearly marked as an editorial opinion, not as fact reads: One of the outcomes of this research is that we now understand that depression may be due to the decreased activity of the serotenergic pathways in the brain. St John's Wort Depression in. John's ort," , NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine Research, at present, is inconclusive.

The National Institutes of Health NIH conducted a 3-year study of patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo.

The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St.

John's ort or placebo. Prescription, OTC and Herbal emedies in Canada More and more consumers are becomes wise to the ways of medicine, and seeking methods of self-medicating and treating acute or chronic ailments with as little hassle as possible.

There are several therapies available to patients suffering from physical ailments, including prescription drugs, OTC and herbal medications. Each of these medications is treated differently by the Canadian government, and regulated in a slightly different manner. Though all of these medications may potentially be taken safely, they can also cause a variety of symptoms and side effects if taken incorrectly. Thus it is critical that consumers educate themselves to as great an extent as possible to ensure that the medicine options they take are safe given their personal medical history.

An overview of each of these different therapies is provided below, as well as legislation governing their disbursement and use. Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities.

Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxification. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.

Million Americans Suffer From Migraine. Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours.

The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy Robinson There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine Robinson Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way.

The patient must put the lights down low, put his…… [Read More]. Bibliography Cancer Council of Australia. Retrieved August 18, , from http: Works Cited Health Insite, Complementary and Alternative Therapies. Alternative medicine in Australia. Expanding horizons of healthcare: Five-year strategic plan Retrieved September 17, from National Institutes of Health website: Department of Health and Human Services. Department of Health and Human Services , August Works Cited Benefits of acupuncture.

Retrieved July 4, at http: The case for real food. The New York Times. Center for the Scientific Study of Yoga and Health. What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved December 28, , from http: Correlates of actual and perceived knowledge of prostate cancer among African-Americans.

Cancer Nursing, 24 3 , Prostate cancer in African-American men: Increasing knowledge and self-efficacy. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 12 3 , Complementary and alternative medicine modality use and beliefs among African-American prostate cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34 2 , Why do African-American men suffer more prostate cancer?.

Retrieved November 17, , from Mayo Clinic Web site: Retrieved electronically on May 6, from http: A holistic approach for health professionals. Alternative Treatments for Sleep Disorders. Alternative Approach to Treating Allergies: The Wonders of Nature. Retrieved March 25, , from http: Retrieved November 1, from http: Core Concepts in Cultural Competence.

Efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine therapies in relieving cancer pain: American Society of Clinical Oncoloty, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health Interview Survey. Retrieved November 24, , from www.

End of life and hospice care. References American Academy of Ophthalmology. Accessed February 14, from http: Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders: Arch Gen Psychiatry; Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: Advance Data , The European Journal of Health Economics, 6 1 , Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Germany.

A survey of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Complementary and alternative therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 23, Health Care Corporation, Inc.

This data will be collected by a market research team who will survey patients regarding their blood tests and numerical medical data. This should be completed no later than June 19th, Finally, some therapies commonly considered as CAM, such as glucosamine sulfate for osteoarthritis and St.

John's wort for depression, no longer really fit the definition, because well-designed RCTs indicate that they are probably efficacious, but the label continues to stick. Many CAM therapies like glucosamine sulfate and St. John's wort are easily tested using conventional RCT designs, for they are simple drug or drug-like products with standard clinical indications. Other CAM therapies are far more difficult to evaluate, either because of their complexity or because of the nature of the alternative medical philosophies from which they are derived.

Some CAM approaches use definitions of health, diagnosis and disease that differ radically from those used in conventional scientific medicine. Some are more properly considered lifestyle, cultural or spiritual practices whose innate values go beyond the pathophysiological focus of conventional medical science.

It is common in RCTs of drugs to use placebos to blind the participants and investigators as to treatment allocation, but this is not always feasible with CAM approaches. Fortunately, it is now widely recognized that well-designed nonblinded RCTs can generate important conclusions. In fact, as important as RCT design can be, I believe there are more fundamental problems to be solved on the way to establishing rational and fair procedures for determining the merits and flaws of CAM: These problems — and the key to their resolution — arise from the defining feature of CAM: For a therapeutic approach to be considered CAM it must, by definition, be scientifically implausible.

But if a treatment is not scientifically plausible, how is one to proceed with its scientific evaluation? Thorough exploration of the potential of any therapeutic approach requires a notion of its target patients and their response and, whenever possible, its mechanism of action.

What scientific peer review committee would — or should — award a competitive grant for a large RCT to test a treatment that is highly implausible? Private funding cannot be counted on, because most CAM therapies are not patented.

And what private interest would willingly fund the definitive test of an already profitable CAM therapy? The result might be negative! Few career medical researchers do more than dabble in CAM in their spare time, and this is hardly surprising. What bright young researcher would choose to devote a scientific career to confirming the inefficacy of implausible treatments?

For their part, most CAM practitioners lack both training and sophistication in clinical investigation and the protected time necessary to gain research skills and conduct clinical trials.

Most authorities believe that fruitful efforts to evaluate CAM will require partnerships between CAM practitioner—proponents and skilled clinical research investigators. How will they be created? The correct way to meet these challenges is to put CAM therapies though the same plausibility-building process that conventional therapies undergo before they come to the stage of definitive RCTs.

The premise of this strategy is that a gain in plausibility is not proof. Conversely, lack of proof does not exclude plausibility. A candidate CAM therapy need not be biologically plausible to merit testing. The important drug classes were identified by empirical observation, and in-vitro empirical testing continues to be the most common path to new drug discovery. Indeed, an unexpected drug effect is likely to be more important than one that was predicted, for it can lead to new biological insight.

Biological plausibility is helpful, however. A biologically plausible mechanism of action greatly aids the investigator in selecting an appropriate dosing regimen and patient population, and encourages persistence in the face of disappointing results. The hypothesis that L-dopa would benefit patients with Parkinson's disease appeared to be refuted when well-designed double-blind RCTs turned out to be negative, but its biological plausibility persuaded George C. Cotzias to test much higher doses of L-dopa than had previously been used.

His landmark paper in the New England Journal of Medicine was a noncontrolled case series. Despite its importance, biological plausibility is lacking for most CAM therapies. This does not mean they are ineffective, but it does require their evaluation to proceed solely on the basis of clinical plausibility.

Several evaluation methods are known, but until now they have largely been discounted as unscientific. They are nonrandomized or open clinical trials, case studies and case series. Nonrandomized clinical trials can be valuable, as they tend to predict the results of subsequent definitive RCTs with reasonable accuracy. An option available in some situations is the RCT of individual patients. In such a study, the patient acts as his or her own control. The McMaster group cautioned that a positive n-of-1 experiment does not prove that a treatment is effective for all patients with a given disorder.

More convincing than a best case series is a consecutive case series, because it permits more general conclusions. This would be attempted only after the therapeutic algorithm, the appropriate patient population and the outcome variables of interest were clearly defined. Where would a consecutive case series lead? To the publication of further noncontrolled consecutive case series by independent investigators.

Several independent positive consecutive case series would further increase plausibility, as long as negative studies were also made public. White and Ernst 23 argue strongly for the use of formal, noncontrolled clinical trials in CAM research. The proper use of case studies and case series requires as much intellectual rigour as a clinical trial, but is more practical for CAM investigators in the field who typically lack funding, protected time or access to the sophisticated resources available in medical school clinical trial units, and whose patients may not be interested in participating in RCTs.

The first priority in a practical effort to focus CAM research productively should be to create mechanisms that foster research into clinical plausibility building. What are needed are 1 the development of formal standards and guidelines for formal case studies, case series and noncontrolled clinical trials in CAM; 2 the recruitment of expert consultants to advise and instruct CAM practitioners; 3 the creation of educational opportunities for CAM practitioners to develop expertise in research into plausibility building; 4 grant competitions for protocols for research into plausibility building; and 5 a central registry to record the results both positive and negative of plausibility- building research studies.

Without such a vetting process in place, I believe there is a real danger that public funds earmarked in good faith for CAM therapy research will be dissipated in a variety of ways: In summary, the way to prove the efficacy of most CAM therapies is with well-designed RCTs, and there is no reason to believe that clinical trial designs cannot be developed that allow even complex CAM therapies to be evaluated.

The procedures involved can be sophisticated, complex and expensive, however, and this confronts investigators with the challenge of identifying which of the myriad of existing and future CAM therapies merit the effort and expense of definitive RCT evaluation. The challenge should be met as it is in conventional drug discovery, through plausibility-building research.

Whenever possible, efforts should be made to establish a credible mechanism of action for a candidate CAM therapy, because this will increase its biological plausibility and reduce the risk of false-negative RCT results.

When biological plausibility is lacking, clinical plausibility alone must be the basis for determining whether or not to proceed to the costlier phase of definitive RCTs.

The creation of a plausibility-building CAM research strategy will require thought, instruction, funding, and collaboration among conventional clinical investigators and CAM advocates. The advantages are many:

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- Alternative Medicine: Try Something New Today more then ever alternative medicine is becoming more accepted and widely used as regular medicine. Alternative medicine is considered the use of any .

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IELTS Sample Essay Model Answer Alternative medicine is not new. It is accepted that it pre-dates conventional medicine and it is still used by many people all over the world. I am unconvinced that it is dangerous, and feel that both alternative and conventional medicine can be useful. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Essay example - Introduction In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in complementary medicine, and indeed alternative medicine (Lee-Treweek , Andrews , Barry ).

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Complementary and Alternative Medicine had a real growth in the last decades, in The European Union and in Romania as well. Having a controversed history, it is the one that successfully completes the treatments prescribed by the conventional phisicians. Alternative Medicine Essay Words | 6 Pages. Alternative Medicine: Try Something New Today more then ever alternative medicine is becoming more accepted and widely used as regular medicine. Alternative medicine is considered the use of any medicine .