A common criterion for prospective Ph. Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student's faculty committee or a separate qualifying committee , or written tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area see below or both.
At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination for example the Test of English as a Foreign Language. Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability.
While some students work outside the university or at student jobs within the university , in some programs students are advised or must agree not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities e. At some Canadian universities, most Ph. Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs.
Some programs may require all Ph. In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the comprehensive examinations. At this stage, the student is known as a "Ph. It is usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage.
Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams. Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a "Ph.
From this stage on, the bulk of the student's time will be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a Ph. The final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to the public in some, but not all, universities.
At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a Ph. Alternate arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form. The general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office.
In other words, if a Ph. In Colombia, the Ph. However, it could also be applied for a direct doctorate in specific cases, according to the jury's recommendations on the thesis proposal. Most of postgraduate students in Colombia must finance their tuition fees by means of teaching assistant seats or research works. Some institutions such as Colciencias , Colfuturo, and Icetex grant scholarships or provide awards in the form of forgivable loans.
After two or two and a half years it is expected the research work of the doctoral candidate to be submitted in the form of oral qualification, where suggestions and corrections about the research hypothesis and methodology, as well as on the course of the research work are performed.
In Finland, the degree of filosofian tohtori abbreviated FT is awarded by traditional universities, such as University of Helsinki. A Master's degree is required, and the doctorate combines approximately 4—5 years of research amounting to 3—5 scientific articles, some of which must be first-author and 60 ECTS points of studies.
The licentiate filosofian lisensiaatti or FL requires only 2—3 years of research and is sometimes done before an FT. Before three research doctorates existed in France: After , only one type of doctoral degree remained, called "doctorate" Doctorat.
The latter is equivalent to the Ph. Students pursuing the Ph. His or her research may be carried out in a laboratory, at a university, or in a company. In the last case, the company hires the candidate and he or she is supervised by both the company's tutor and a labs' professor. The validation of the Ph. The financing of Ph. The most common procedure is a short-term employment contract called doctoral contract: However, the candidate can apply for funds from a company who can host him or her at its premises as in the case where Ph.
As another encountered situation, the company and the institute can sign together a funding agreement so that the candidate still has a public doctoral contract, but is daily located in the company for example, it is particularly the case of French Scientific Cooperation Foundation. In India, generally, a master's degree is required to gain admission to a doctoral program.
Direct admission to a Ph. In some subjects, doing a Masters in Philosophy M. In the last few years, there have been many changes in the rules relating to a Ph. After successful completion of the coursework, the students are required to give presentations of the research proposal plan of work or synopsis at the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defence viva-voce.
In Germany, admission to a doctoral program is generally on the basis of having an advanced degree i. A candidate must also find a tenured professor from a university to serve as the formal advisor and supervisor Betreuer of the dissertation throughout the doctoral program called Promotion.
This supervisor is informally referred to as Doktorvater or Doktormutter , which literally translate to "doctor's father" and "doctor's mother" respectively. While most German doctorates are considered equivalent to the PhD, an exception is the medical doctorate, where "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study.
The European Research Council decided in that those doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree. Depending on the university, doctoral students Doktoranden can be required to attend formal classes or lectures, some of them also including exams or other scientific assignments, in order to get one or more certificates of qualification Qualifikationsnachweise.
Depending on the doctoral regulations Promotionsordnung of the university and sometimes on the status of the doctoral student, such certificates may not be required. Usually, former students, research assistants or lecturers from the same university, may be spared from attending extra classes.
Instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research. In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral candidates work as teaching assistants, research assistants, or lecturers. Many universities have established research-intensive Graduiertenkollegs "graduate colleges" , which are graduate schools that provide funding for doctoral studies.
The usual duration of a doctoral program largely depends on the subject and area of research; but, often three to five years of full-time research work are required. In , the median age of new Ph. The degree of Candidate of Sciences Russian: According to "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other European countries" , in countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees like Russian Federation, some post-Soviet states, Germany, Poland, Austria and Switzerland , should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree, and in countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this Ph.
As most education systems only have one advanced research qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications ISCED ,  par. The Dottorato di ricerca research doctorate , abbreviated to "Dott. While the standard Ph. The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph. Dottorato di ricerca in Italy were introduced by law and Presidential Decree in ,   referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.
Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all those who already hold a " laurea magistrale " master degree or similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the entrance examinations. The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance examinations are set out in the examination announcement.
A doctoral degree Pol. Commonly, students with a master's degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance exam. The title of Ph. PhD is awarded in recognition of a substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, origination of new directions and visions in science.
A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine. The doctorate was introduced in Sweden in and in Denmark-Norway in and awarded in theology, law, and medicine, while the magister's degree was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, equivalent to the doctorate.
Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model. Denmark and Norway both introduced the Dr. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German Habilitation rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did not have a separate Habilitation. The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the British higher doctorates D.
Denmark introduced an American-style Ph. Holders of a ph. In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala University 's Faculty of Philosophy in In Sweden, the Latin term is officially translated into Swedish filosofie doktor and commonly abbreviated fil.
The degree represents the traditional Faculty of Philosophy and encompasses subjects from biology, physics, and chemistry, to languages, history, and social sciences, being the highest degree in these disciplines.
Sweden currently has two research-level degrees, the Licentiate's degree, which is comparable to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate's degree and now as the ph. Some universities in Sweden also use the term teknologie doktor for doctorates awarded by institutes of technology for doctorates in engineering or natural science related subjects such as materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.
The Swedish term fil. Singapore has six universities offering doctoral study opportunities: They are granted by a university on behalf of the King, and its diploma has the force of a public document. All doctoral programs are of a research nature. The studies should include original results and can take a maximum of three years, although this period can be extended under certain circumstances to 5 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to science.
If approved by her or his "thesis director or directors ", the study will be presented to a panel of 3 distinguished scholars. Any doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research.
If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory, Pass, Satisfactory, and Excellent. This right to cover their heads in the presence of the King is traditionally reserved in Spain to Grandees and Dukes.
The concesion is remembered in solemn ceremonies held by the University by telling Doctors to take seat and cover their heads as a reminder of that royal leave. Universities admit applicants to Ph. Oxford abbreviate their Doctor of Philosophy degree as "DPhil", while most use the abbreviation "PhD"; these are in all other respects equivalent. This is typically done after one or two years and the research work done may count towards the Ph.
If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, he or she may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil degree as is the case at the King's College London and University of Manchester. In many universities, the MPhil is also offered as a stand-alone research degree.
In the United Kingdom, funding for Ph. Higher fees are often charged for laboratory-based degrees. This implies that the fourth year of Ph. Research Council funding is sometimes ' earmarked ' for a particular department or research group, who then allocate it to a chosen student, although in doing so they are generally expected to abide by the usual minimum entry requirements typically a first degree with upper second class honours, although successful completion of a postgraduate master's degree is usually counted as raising the class of the first degree by one division for these purposes.
The availability of funding in many disciplines means that in practice only those with the best research proposals, references and backgrounds are likely to be awarded a studentship. Since , there has been a move by research councils to fund interdisciplinary doctoral training centres which concentrate resources on fewer higher quality centres. Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as well as creating free time in which to earn money for subsistence.
There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the program and the thesis is submitted at the end of a three- to four-year program. These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students. With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but this is rare. Since the early s, British funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving Ph.
Furthermore, supervising staff are encouraged in their career progression to ensure that the Ph. These issues contribute to an overall discrepancy between supervisors and Ph. There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated Ph. These courses include a Master of Research MRes in the first year, which consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation projects. As this includes the MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought forward to encourage completion of both MRes and Ph.
These programs are designed to provide students with a greater range of skills than a standard Ph. In the United Kingdom, Ph. Doctor of Letters or D. Doctor of Science , which may be granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted and usually published research.
However, some UK universities still maintain the option of submitting a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate. Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates D. Prof or ProfD , which are the same level as Ph. These are most notably in the fields of engineering Eng. Psych , occupational psychology D. These typically have a more formal taught component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a 40,—60,word thesis component, which together are officially considered equivalent to a Ph.
In the United States, the Ph. There are universities in the United States that award the Ph. The first phase consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This often is followed by a preliminary , a comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. The student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth is emphasized.
Another two to eight years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation , which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to pages. In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis.
Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline. Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a Ph. The number of Ph. In , US universities awarded 8, Ph. Graduate schools increasingly [ citation needed ] encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers' research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.
Many Ivy League and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program if it is short or for most of it. At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to supervise Ph. There is now a lot of literature published for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson, and Parry Indeed, Dinham and Scott have argued that the worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in a number of what they term "how-to" texts for both students and supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips These authors report empirical data on the benefits that a Ph.
Wisker has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision: The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the Ph.
These two models were first distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black ; cited in Wisker, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see PHD. List of doctoral degrees awarded by country. Education in Australia and Australian Qualifications Framework. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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Doctorates in the United Kingdom. Graduate science education in the United States. Doctorat Bosnia and Herzegovina: Doctor of Philosophy PhD China: Licentiate , Magister , Ph. Filosofian tohtori and any degree of tohtori France: Dottorato di ricerca Japan: Doctor of Philosophy PhD Mexico: Doctor of Philosophy Ph. Magister , Licentiate , doctorates traditionally considered higher degrees , Ph. Doktora United Arab Emirates: Doctor of Philosophy PhD Ukraine: Journal of Further and Higher Education.
Retrieved 27 January The History of the University of Oxford: Very few persons had received even an honorary DLitt by when the Reverend E. Walker, Senior Tutor of Queen's, proposed, as the Oxford Magazine put it, that the University 'should divert the stream' of American aspirants to the German universities' degree of philosophiae doctor by opening the DLitt to persons offering a suitable dissertation nine terms after graduation.
Studies in Higher Education. Studium generale and the origins of university education in Europe. A history of the university in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Therefore, no matter the class or even if topics are assigned essays papers, realize this is yet one more tool toward completing an education and establishing a great career. Often, changing an attitude toward the process to write term paper assignments is all it takes.
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