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When Adding a Second “PS” at the End of a Letter, It’s “PPS”, Not “PSS”

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I would however never use a single period PS. On the other hand, PS is not part of the postscript itself and hence it should be separated from the postscript text with some punctuation mark. I would indeed use a colon or em dash, regardless of the way postscript is abbreviated with or without periods. Blah blah PS Blah blah Anyway, the golden rule of typography is consistency. In other words, whatever rule you're using, just stick to it.

I have another problem related to it. If we stick to the version P. Quoted from Thomas Tompion in post 1. Thomas Tompion , Dec 19, I find it very interesting what you were all saying about the golden rule being having just one rule and sticking to it.

I know this thread is 4 years dead and that I have the grammar skills of a sloth, but I just thought I'd add my two cents. I generally go by whatever looks best on the page or screen - for example I read this entire discussion, was intrigued by all sides of the argument, looked back at my email and knew at once that writing P.

I am allowed to use no caps after that full stop, right? Because again, I don't know , it just looks right. But anyway, even though I find the PS quite an unappealing look most of the time, I might write it in some contexts. For example I would prefer to use it when writing a handwritten letter, as the dots never would look quite right - I just tried writing a postscript with them now, and they separate the letters too much.

On the other hand, in a note or quick-message I would automatically write ps, even though I'm pretty obsessive most of the time about having caps at the start of sentences.

The point is, the golden rule of what is right would, for me, disrupt the balance of what feels right in any given situation. That's always one option. Needless to say, I'm a slow writer. Damnjoe , Jan 11, You must log in or sign up to reply here.

Share This Page Tweet. When the PostScript program is interpreted, the interpreter converts these instructions into the dots needed to form the output. Almost as complex as PostScript itself is its handling of fonts.

The font system uses the PS graphics primitives to draw glyphs as curves, which can then be rendered at any resolution. A number of typographic issues had to be considered with this approach. One issue is that fonts do not actually scale linearly at small sizes; features of the glyphs will become proportionally too large or small and they start to look wrong.

PostScript avoided this problem with the inclusion of font hinting , in which additional information is provided in horizontal or vertical bands to help identify the features in each letter that are important for the rasterizer to maintain. The result was significantly better-looking fonts even at low resolution; it had formerly been believed that hand-tuned bitmap fonts were required for this task.

At the time, the technology for including these hints in fonts was carefully guarded, and the hinted fonts were compressed and encrypted into what Adobe called a Type 1 Font also known as PostScript Type 1 Font , PS1 , T1 or Adobe Type 1.

Type 1 was effectively a simplification of the PS system to store outline information only, as opposed to being a complete language PDF is similar in this regard. Adobe would then sell licenses to the Type 1 technology to those wanting to add hints to their own fonts.

Type 3 fonts allowed for all the sophistication of the PostScript language, but without the standardized approach to hinting. The Type 2 font format was designed to be used with Compact Font Format CFF charstrings, and was implemented to reduce the overall font file size.

To compete with Adobe's system, Apple designed their own system, TrueType , around Immediately following the announcement of TrueType, Adobe published the specification for the Type 1 font format. Retail tools such as Altsys Fontographer acquired by Macromedia in January , owned by FontLab since May added the ability to create Type 1 fonts. Since then, many free Type 1 fonts have been released; for instance, the fonts used with the TeX typesetting system are available in this format.

In the early s there were several other systems for storing outline-based fonts, developed by Bitstream and METAFONT for instance, but none included a general-purpose printing solution and they were therefore not widely used. In the late s, Adobe joined Microsoft in developing OpenType , essentially a functional superset of the Type 1 and TrueType formats.

When printed to a PostScript output device, the unneeded parts of the OpenType font are omitted, and what is sent to the device by the driver is the same as it would be for a TrueType or Type 1 font, depending on which kind of outlines were present in the OpenType font. In the s, Adobe drew most of its revenue from the licensing fees for their implementation of PostScript for printers, known as a raster image processor or RIP. As a number of new RISC -based platforms became available in the mids, some found Adobe's support of the new machines to be lacking.

This and issues of cost led to third-party implementations of PostScript becoming common, particularly in low-cost printers where the licensing fee was the sticking point or in high-end typesetting equipment where the quest for speed demanded support for new platforms faster than Adobe could provide. Apple ended up reaching an accord with Adobe and licensed genuine PostScript for its printers, but TrueType became the standard outline font technology for both Windows and the Macintosh.

Today, third-party PostScript-compatible interpreters are widely used in printers and multifunction peripherals MFPs. A free software version, with several other applications, is Ghostscript.

Several compatible interpreters are listed on the Undocumented Printing Wiki. Some basic, inexpensive laser printers do not support PostScript, instead coming with drivers that simply rasterize the platform's native graphics formats rather than converting them to PostScript first.

PostScript became commercially successful due to the introduction of the graphical user interface , allowing designers to directly lay out pages for eventual output on laser printers. However, the GUI's own graphics systems were generally much less sophisticated than PostScript; Apple's QuickDraw , for instance, supported only basic lines and arcs, not the complex B-splines and advanced region filling options of PostScript.

In order to take full advantage of PostScript printing, applications on the computers had to re-implement those features using the host platform's own graphics system. This led to numerous issues where the on-screen layout would not exactly match the printed output, due to differences in the implementation of these features. As computer power grew, it became possible to host the PS system in the computer rather than the printer.

This led to the natural evolution of PS from a printing system to one that could also be used as the host's own graphics language. There were numerous advantages to this approach; not only did it help eliminate the possibility of different output on screen and printer, but it also provided a powerful graphics system for the computer, and allowed the printers to be "dumb" at a time when the cost of the laser engines was falling. In a production setting, using PostScript as a display system meant that the host computer could render low-resolution to the screen, higher resolution to the printer, or simply send the PS code to a smart printer for offboard printing.

However, PostScript was written with printing in mind, and had numerous features that made it unsuitable for direct use in an interactive display system. People just seem to be lazy. Your email address will not be published. Jacob July 4, 2: David Clark May 9, 2: I see then instead of than several times a day. See what I did there? With the split infinitive?

Joe June 17, 6: Joe June 17, 7: Carolina January 26, 6:


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A postscript is a brief message appended to the end of a letter (following the signature) or other text. A postscript is usually introduced by the letters P.S. In certain types of business letters (in particular, sales promotion letters), postscripts are commonly used to make a final persuasive.

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Aug 23,  · If you are talking about P.S. when used in writing, it stands for postscript, from the Latin post scriptum, meaning "written after.". It is generally used in letter-writing to indicate something added after the body of the letter was completed and signed. Jan 11,  · But anyway, even though I find the PS quite an unappealing look most of the time, I might write it in some contexts. For example I would prefer to use it when writing a handwritten letter, as the dots never would look quite right - I just tried writing a postscript with them now, and they separate the letters too much.

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This, of course, is because “PS” stands for “postscript”. This comes from the Latin “post scriptum” (sometimes written “postscriptum”), which translates to “written after”, or more to the point, “what comes after the writing”. PS_WRITE is a FORTRAN90 library which makes PostScript plots.. PS_WRITE can create both general PostScript (PS) files and also the special Encapsulated PostScript files which are restricted to containing a single image.