The impact of organized crime is difficult to measure since this type of crime is involved in so many legal and illegal enterprises. The illegal enterprises organized crime engages in include drug and weapons trafficking, money laundering, gambling, murder for hire, prostitution, bombings, extortion, kidnapping, fraud, political corruption, loan sharking, blackmail, human smuggling, counterfeiting, illegally dumping toxic waste, and terrorism.
Not counted in these statistics, however, are the actual and indirect costs and hardships inflicted upon individuals and communities through the violence, intimidation, and corruption used by organized crime to control their criminal enterprises. One trend in organized crime is the increased ability of these organizations to work with one another around the world to achieve their illegal ends.
This has increased the need for the FBI to work with its counterparts in other countries in order to disrupt these costly criminal activities. It also maintains a Sports Bribery Program aimed at ensuring the integrity of American sporting events by educating sports officials and players about the role of organized crime in gambling, corruption, bribery, and drug trafficking.
Additionally, the program investigates and prosecutes offenses related to federal gambling and corruption laws in sports. Within sociological theory, many of the activities engaged in by organized crime come under the concept of white-collar crime.
Analysis of white collar crime focuses on two types: Since white collar crime is intermingled with legitimate business activities and often involves complex and sophisticated technical actions, detection is very difficult. Technically speaking, when a corporation commits an offense, this is called "corporate crime" or "organizational crime," which is considered one type of white-collar crime. This division of white collar crime categories into two types, occupational and corporate, was advanced by Clinard and Quinney in the s, and it remains influential to this day Green, Another aspect of white-collar crime that can be either individual or organized is governmental or political crime, for instance, lawmakers trading their influence and legislative votes for money and gifts.
In addition to crimes deemed to be white collar in nature, RICO provides penalties for gambling, extortion, prostitution, narcotics trafficking, loan sharking and murder. Punishment under RICO can be extremely harsh, including fines and up to 20 years in prison.
Additionally, the defendant must forfeit any claims to the money or property obtained from the criminal enterprise or obtained from any criminal enterprise barred under RICO White-collar, There was a decline in crime during the s. Our country enjoyed seven years of declining crime for the period , the most recent data available.
These are welcome developments, particularly following the surge of crime and violence of the late s. Many observers have drawn a simple correlation between these two trends. Putting more offenders in prison caused the reduction in crime. The Sentencing project has just completed a study that examines this issue in great detail and concludes that any such correlation is ambiguous at best. In examining the relationship between incarceration and crime in the s the picture is complicated by the seven year period just prior to this, Thus we see a continuous rise in incarceration for fourteen years, during which crime rose for seven years, then declined for seven years.
This does not suggest that incarceration had no impact on crime, but any such connection is clearly influenced by other factors. A comparison with other nations is instructive in this regard. If you are tasked with a research paper in the area of criminal justice you are in luck because there are many different subcategories in the field of criminal justice all of which have a plethora of potential topics.
For those interested in background work and research the following topics may be of particular interest for your next paper:. Of course there are many topics about which you can focus with relation to the different types of crimes that are committed. You might write on:. Our website is free of charge.
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