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How to Write a Research Paper

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Writing a Career Research Paper

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Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if Books.

Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs:. Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community.

Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page.

Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source. Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it. A thesis statement is a main idea, a central point of your research paper. The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence.

Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper.

It will naturally change while you develop your ideas. Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject. The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read.

Avoid citing other authors in this section. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers. If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise. Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author.

More helpful hints about Writing a Research Paper. An informal outline working outline is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas.

It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another.

The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other.

Make the first outline tentative. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY — This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.

Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data.

Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place.

You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand.

Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question.

Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.

Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.

Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay.

Use a technique that suits you, e. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.

Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed.

Read your paper for any content errors. Papers that are really short — 1 to 2 pages — will need a narrower question than a dissertation spanning hundreds of pages. What social group or groups will you focus on in order to address the social origins of the American Revolution? Break down the "social" into categories — women, racial minorities, farmers, city-dwellers, writers, travelers, businessmen, or children. There are numerous different angles you can take. Try to formulate a question based on your narrowed field such as: What role did farmers play in the origins of the American Revolution?

These are potential answers to your research question. Use what you know about the topic to surmise possible answers to your question. Farmers directly participated in public riots against British officers. Farmers refused to sell their crops to British contingents. Farmers refused to quarter British soldiers in their homes.

Farmers refused to pay taxes on their goods. It is a good idea to start with several hypothetical thesis statements. Make sure your thesis is explicit. Your thesis statement is the key to your entire paper. The quartering of British soldiers in the homes of poor farmers caused them to protest British taxes and to attack British troops. This is a single sentence thesis statement that addresses both why the farmers chose to revolt and how they did so. Discuss your working thesis statement with others.

Be sure to ask others to evaluate your thesis statement before you begin your research process. This is a fail-safe. Show your thesis statement to your professor. This would save you time in the long run. Primary sources can be found in a variety of locations. Some are reprinted in primary source collections.

Others can only be accessed in archives or libraries. National Archives and Records Administration to get the necessary documents. If you're feeling overwhelmed by the volume of research, see if your library has appointments with a research librarian. Librarians stay up to date with current trends in scholarship and can help guide your search. Take notes on a computer or using note cards.

Create a note sheet of quotations that you may want to use in your research paper. It is better to gather more than you need at this point, since you will need evidence from reputable sources to support your thesis. Do some research about the author, so that you can establish their credibility. Were your documents created by somebody with an obvious bias?

Are your documents original or were they reproduced after the fact? Is the document complete? Blogs and other non-authoritative web sources are usually inappropriate for a research paper. Organize them so they flow from one to the next. For our imaginary project, it would be best to put your notes on quartered British troops before notes on farmer's revolutionary actions. Since our argument is that quartered troops angered farmers into action, we need to discuss them in that order.

Does it cause you to rethink your original hypothesis? Or does your research further clarify your original thesis statement? If so, make the necessary adjustments. Quartered British troops consumed large quantities of food while housed with poor farmers.

As such, farmers played a significant role in the origins of the American Revolution. An outline is a great place to organize your thoughts before you sit down to write. It is also a great place to figure out what needs to come first. Once you have a general idea of the trajectory of your paper, you'll be able to introduce it more efficiently. Start with your thesis at the beginning, then break it down into sections that back up your argument.

Write questions like "Why is this research important? You can also write a prose outline, instead of a question-based outline. Place headers that are the subjects of each paragraph or section of your research paper. Add quotes and other notes in bullets below the subject. You can begin your composition directly from a prose-based outline.

Be sure to gather bibliographic information as you go. Start with a factual statement about your subject. Some people like to start broad and work their way into a research topic. This reaches those people who want to know the broad appeal of your work. If you're writing a paper on the importance of comics, you could assert the importance of comic books since the s.

If you want to discuss the role of farmers in the American Revolution, you can make a blanket statement about the complex causes of the revolutionary movement. This is how most people begin their research papers. They don't want to make their subject seem too obscure, so they write about larger points before jumping head first into their topic. And make sure that everyone can agree with your broad statement. You don't want to have your readership criticizing your argument from the beginning.

You need to build a certain degree of trust. By all means, avoid the "Throughout history" or "In modern society" types of opening lines. These are so overused that they have become hackneyed, and they will damage your credibility as a writer before your reader has looked at another word. Review what else has been written on your topic.

One of the best ways to begin a paper is to tell your audience what else exists. If you are writing on the role of farmers during the American Revolution, begin by discussing those works that directly or tangentially discuss the subject.

Then explain how your work adds to the conversation or does something differently. This will answer that nagging question in your readers' minds - why do I need to read this research paper? We've all seen those individuals who begin papers or speeches by quoting Webster's Dictionary. It is hackneyed most of the time because the speaker or author defines a common word that most people know. If your topic is more obscure or the audience knows nothing about it, you might need to start by establishing a baseline of knowledge.


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Finding a topic and doing the research may be half the battle, but putting words to paper or starting an introduction often proves to be an intimidating task. If done correctly, an introduction is a simple and effective way to write the entire paper quickly.

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Choose your topic. It may be already chosen by your professor, but you will usually have some liberty in deciding what exactly you write about. Choose something that is interesting to you and that you want to learn more about. It will help you to realize how to start off a research paper. Do some preliminary research.

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In a paper that deals with a particularly specialized topic or a term your audience is unlikely to be familiar with, you can start your introduction by defining a central word or phrase. Do not use this if a definition will not add useful information. NEVER start your paper saying, "In this paper, I will" or "This paper is about." Start strong. In your research, have you come across an odd factoid or interesting quote? Try starting your paper with that. How about starting with an anecdotal story or humor? Middle Sentences.

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How To Write A Research Paper Step 1: How To Begin? Take the first step: Make sure to start right away and begin collecting your resources. Several weeks may seem like plenty of time to complete a research paper, but time can slip away leaving you with a week (or less) to finish. Working early and consistently will spare you a lot of stress and. The experiment: Say you have just conducted the Milgram biuiawjdh.ga you want to write the research paper for it. (Milgram actually waited two years before writing about his study.) Here's a shortened example of a research article that MIGHT have been written.