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❶It was many things occurring in succession to each other. In the Visigoths could no longer be contained, invaded Italy, eventually sacking Rome and abandoning it for Gaul France.

A Short History of the Roman Empire

Jugurthine And Mithridatic Wars
The Punic Wars

Although the Romans sent in forces to avenge the loss, they held back from a fullscale invasion of Germany, which Octavian judged would be a disaster. He was a cautious ruler, as was his adopted son and successor Tiberius r.

After Tiberius the emperor Caligula r. Some British tribes chose to oppose the Romans, while others supported them. Under the next emperor, Nero r. She was eventually defeated, but her rebellion put an end to Roman plans to send an expeditionary force to Ireland. Nero was overthrown in 68, and his three successors had brief rules before being overthrown. The Roman army in Judaea, flushed with its victory—including sacking Jerusalem and the burning of the Jewish Temple—returned to Rome with their commander, Vespasian, at their head.

He became emperor, to be following by his sons Titus and Domitian. The rule of Vespasian r. The Romans eventually controlled all of England, Wales, and southern Scotland. In central Europe parts of southern Germany were added to the Roman Empire, which had come to include the whole of the coast of northern Africa. He nominated his son Marcus Ulpis Trajanus to succeed him.

The emperor Trajan r. The Romans felt this violated a long-standing treaty with the Parthians, and Trajan, aged 60, attacked and captured Armenia and Mesopotamia, taking over the remainder of the former Seleucid Empire, which the Romans had attacked years earlier.

This gave the Romans access to the Persian Gulf. Making peace with the Parthians, he gave up land east of the Euphrates and crushed a revolt in Mauretania and the Bar Kokhba Revolt in Judaea. This was the last large-scale Jewish revolt against the Romans and was destroyed with massive repercussions in Judaea. Hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed. Jews were subsequently banned from entering Jerusalem. The empire was approaching its greatest extent. At this point, the only places added to the empire were parts of Mesopotamia, which had been given to Parthia by Hadrian, and parts of Media modernday Iran.

Of the next Roman emperors some are well known, but most had only a minor role in the history of the Roman Empire. The reign of Commodus led to infighting in the imperial court, with subsequent emperors becoming worried that regional commanders were becoming too powerful.

In response they only gave them as many troops as were necessary. This in turn led to troop shortages in some areas and worry of invasion. The Roman Empire was a trading empire as well as a military empire, and Roman money was widely recognized throughout the region, and beyond. Latin became the language of the educated elite of the entire empire and of government officials and soldiers who settled in various parts of the empire.

Gradually, Greek began to supplant Latin in the eastern Mediterranean, and it became the language of business and commerce in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. Surviving tombstones show that many Romans came from distant lands. Goods were traded extensively— Rome had to import large amounts of corn and wheat to feed its growing population. Ideas also traveled throughout the Roman Empire.

Initially these were connected with the Pax Romana—the Roman legal system. Under Antoninus Pius, Roman citizenship was extended in much of the eastern Mediterranean, and Roman citizens had to be tried in a Roman court, leading to Roman law becoming the standard in the eastern part of the empire. The Romans encouraged the spread of learning, philosophy, and religion.

Christianity and the belief in Mithras rapidly spread to all corners of the empire, with archaeological evidence for both religions stretching from Spain to northern England and to the Middle East. Since the founding of Rome, the citizenry had traded with other empires. Roman goods found their way to the Kushan Empire in southern Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Sogdians, in Central Asia modern-day Uzbekistan , traded with both the Romans and the Chinese, and Roman coins have been found in archaeological sites in some parts of the Far East.

When news was received in Rome that there was an uprising or an attack on the Romans, Diocletian complained that he needed a deputy who could dispatch armies efficiently but not want to claim the throne.

In he appointed an Illyrian called Maximian, the son of a peasant farmer. Maximian was posted to Milan, where he could respond to attacks in the West, especially along the frontier with Germany. Diocletian then moved to Nicomedia, in modern-day Turkey, where he would supervise the empire and respond to attacks from Parthia or Persia.

Although the empire remained undivided, there were definite lines of demarcation. These would manifest themselves years later in the division of the Roman Empire.

Diocletian, however, is probably best known for his persecution of the Christians. Soon after he abdicated, Christianity would become an important part of the Roman administration.

The emperor Constantine the Great r. However, under Theodosius I r. Only 15 years after this split the Western Roman Empire suffered a major shock when Visigoths invaded the Italian peninsula and sacked Rome. The capital had been briefly moved to Ravenna, but the psychological damage was done. Rome was retaken from the Visigoths, and authorities called back Roman legions guarding other parts of the western empire, withdrawing soldiers from Britain and the German frontier, to try to defend the Italian peninsula.

The eastern empire continued as the Byzantine Empire, although gradually lost much territory. The Roman Empire was founded on military glory, but its legacy was much broader. This created an imbalance of trade. The colonies were creating their own finished goods and no longer relied on Rome for them. New coins were then made out of lead and gold to devalue the currency.

Merchants now charged more money because these new coins were not worth as much as the old ones. This created inflation, this problem plagued the empire until its fall. The problem of succession also contributed to the fall of Rome. There was never a set system of succession. After the death of an emperor, generals competed with each other for power. This weakened the authority of Rome; corruption was common and law was almost non-existent.

Diocletian tried to make reforms to make the empire as strong as it was before. He realized that the empire was too large for one person to govern, he split the empire in half and took control of eastern part himself.

He then appointed a co-emperor to rule in the west. He also reorganized the problems in the civil service and made them responsible directly to the emperor.

He increased the size of the army and trained them better. To improve the economic health of the empire, Diocletian set limits on prices and wages to slow down inflation.

To give some stability in agriculture and manufacturing, he ordered people to stay in their jobs. There was no room for promotion. Diocletian died in A. Constantine took over as emperor. He reunited the east and west under his own rule.

He also built a new capital at Byzantium, on the Bosporus. He named this city Constantinople. Constantine wanted a new capital that would be a Christian city, not a pagan one. He continued the policies of Diocletian. People saw no need to work hard with no chance of getting ahead. These reforms only slowed down the process of collapse. To the north of the Rhine and Danube rivers, lived a group of people known as the German tribes.

They were herders and farmers who had migrated from Scandinavia. As their population grew, they began to look for new land. They decided that moving into the Roman Empire was a good idea. The Roman army was spread thin and could barely cope with the Germans.

In the fourth century, the Huns, a nomadic people from central Asia, began attacking the German tribes. Thus the tribes looked for protection from the Huns in the Empire. They received permission from the Emperor to live in the Empire. A couple of years later the Romans sent an army to defeat the Germans and failed to defeat them. This proved that Rome was not invincible.

The Germans continued to sack the west; they invaded Italy and sacked Rome. Rome bought peace by giving the Germans most of Gaul and Spain. The Huns then marched into Rome and they were soundly defeated by Rome and its German allies.


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The Roman Empire was one of the most successful empire of its time and lasted from about B. Many things the Romans did attributed to the success and longevity of the Roman Empire. The Romans had a new way of governing its citizens and had an extremely strong military/5(15).

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The decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth. The Rise of the Roman Empire can be contributed to many factors. Those factors would include strength in the military, society, leadership, religious, and . To begin, the Roman Empire was vast and spread out throughout much of the known land. To help establish such an empire and help it grow advanced and complex architecture was used. As far as Roman Architecture goes, it is almost impossible to compare it with that of other nations, because the Romans applied architecture to so .

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The Byzantine Empire, sometimes known as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. Mar 03,  · The Roman Empire and Nero It is the beginning of the first century A.D. Seneca, chief Roman tragic writer and philosopher in the time, who just came back from exile is summoned to the Roman emperor's castle .