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What is the difference between formative and summative assessment?

Formative assessment

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Educational Leadership, 67 8 , Grossman and Loeb talk about how alternative routes to becoming a teacher have grown throughout the past few decades. The necessity for teachers is mainly in urban areas as this is where most teacher shortages occur. They discuss how subjects such as math and science are in high demand and people with backgrounds in either area usually are successful at taking an alternative route. The authors make a point to note that not all alternative programs are the same.

They praise the Teach for American and New York City Teaching Fellows programs as being top rated and highly selective, thus garnering the best candidates.

Teach for American and New York City Teaching Fellows programs generally recruit applicants from competitive schools which is why both programs…… [Read More]. When to Use Directive Control Behaviors This paper is about many different aspects of effective supervision, training and evaluation, but the main concern here is control. It can be assumed that the supervisor has control over the supervisory situation, but this would be an oversimplification of the relationship between a line employee and their direct boss.

Control is a shared entity because though the supervisor may determine the course an employee must take, the employee decides whether they will follow that direction or not. Thus, the supervisor must prove to the employee that they are competent in the job before they can expect the employee to follow direction. This is the stance taken by directive control behaviors. A supervisor who uses directive control behaviors has to be a subject matter expert.

If they cannot claim an expertise in the elements that the job entails then they are less likely…… [Read More]. Instructional Effectiveness Many Scholars Claim. Time to develop and use assessments effectively must be built into the teachers' work week. They are time-consuming, but worthwhile, and should not be administered as an afterthought. The results tell us a great deal about students and ourselves. It will be a challenge to make sure assessments are meaningful and are accorded the time they deserve.

When we think of assessments, we often think about formal assessments, whether they are teacher-created quizzes, chapter tests from a textbook, or standardized tests that compare students across the country.

Assessment can, and should, include the informal observations teachers make in their classrooms on a daily basis. Because teachers spend so much time with their students, they are in a good position to see both struggles and progress. It may be one of the easiest ways to see what students need because it is immediate and requires no preparation.

We can learn from…… [Read More]. Secondary Literature and Primary Research. Every educational institution and population presents unique characteristics and requirements that make even the most comprehensive prior research incomplete in terms of the actual advisability of implementing changes in that educational environment Lloyd, Summative Evaluation Summative evaluation must begin from the moment of initial implementation II, It should cover both the immediate apparent response of and effect on learners as well as the apparent efficacy and appropriateness of the operational approach implemented by teachers initially.

The former allows teachers to gauge, in real time, the degree to which the new changes seem to be received by students and the degree to which they seem to benefit their teaching objectives and learning outcomes.

Sometimes, that process allows educators to identify practical difficulties and complications in their chosen methods of delivery that might not have been anticipated prospectively. Other times, that process allows educators to identify problems, deficiencies, and complications…… [Read More]. Special Needs Intervention Client Profile Brenda is a seven-year-old second grader that has been identified as dyslexic.

She has significant delays in pre-literacy and numeracy skills have been identified through both formal assessment and performance in classroom activities. Work samples demonstrate that Brenda has difficulty sequencing and recognizing word phenomes and putting them together for reading and writing activities. Brenda does not demonstrate the ability to recognize phenomes in words. An interview with Brenda's teacher reveals that other than her problems associated with dyslexia, Brenda's development and functioning is on target with a majority of her peers.

She tends to display shyness and introversion when called upon in class to perform activities associated with literacy and numeracy.

She is polite and participates actively in class activities. She is a pleasant child and normally social with her classmates. Working for International Peace. Their methods are fairly typical of terrorists. These include suicide bombings, kidnappings, and attacks on everyday civilians. The crux of their methodology is that they are targeting civilians since they do not have the means to battle the largely Christian government via conventional warfare. Therefore, they have resorted to terrorist attacks to cause residents to flee and to attempt to gain territory in such a manner.

The principle means of intervening in this activity is to aid the Christian government of Nigeria with forces that are opposed to terrorism. This aid will include those marshaled and containing troops from the United States, Western Europe, and the United Nations in general. It is critical to supply the Nigerian government with…… [Read More]. Vignette 1 Maria and Her.

Not all teachers are aware of the fact that formative assessments should be used to modify their own teaching approach, and not merely to see if students are doing their homework.

Teachers should also be more willing to pool their collective knowledge and resources, so they can exchange ideas about using different forms of formative assessments besides quizzes. Formative assessments are as much of a "check in" for me as your child. I am trying to "check" to see what he or she does not understand. The overemphasis on standardized testing can cause teachers to focus too much on the stated goals of the lesson, and not enough on the process of learning.

It is not possible to remove this impediment, however. Instead teachers should find ways to make formative assessment useful in meeting the goals set for the class. Students should be encouraged to use periodic formative…… [Read More]. Comprehension of a Cours's Subject. I would then draft the scenario with a script for the laboring patient to follow that precisely matches the signs and red flags from the curriculum.

This would ensure that the nurses are thinking through and recalling both the problem and the proper steps to fix the problem. For example, one problem that might arise is that the baby's head is not easily exiting the birth canal. According to the curriculum the nurse would then know that from that factor the mother is pushing the wrong position. The nurse would be required to lift the mother from a supine position and aid her into the natural squatting position, which is recommended most for expanding the pelvis and shortening the birth canal.

Thus, the nurse determines the red flag and fixes the problem correctly. This evaluation provides useful information on the amount of comprehension that the nurses are gaining from the…… [Read More]. Hence the organizations are well versed with the tactics and strategies that will facilitate their way to function profitably in the long run.

Resource Management Is an Effective and Efficient. These resources include human skills, inventory, financial resources, production resources or even the information systems. For there to be success in any project there has to be effective management of resources when it comes to assigning them to the projects. This often includes hours of labor for those people who are assigned to the particular project.

Apart from the management of people, resource management also involves managing equipment that are to be used for specific projects and the materials required by people and the specific equipment that have been assigned to the projects.

When it comes to project management there are techniques, philosophies, and processes can be developed in a bid to ensure that the best approach is…… [Read More]. A Puzzle of Learning With an increased focus in literacy and assessment in education, the old curriculum, that is, planning the activities, then searching for resources, and finally deciding how to evaluate a student's achievement has been replaced with a new model.

The new model begins with the evaluation, and then focuses on the resources that are available, and finally the tasks to teach the students are created. This model can be adapted to fit the school system philosophy and the individual school and students, but as a general practice, the new model of creating and presenting curriculum falls somewhere within this model. But how do all the parts of the curriculum fit together? Each piece, from the set outcomes to the different types of evaluation must work together to form a unified, understandable curriculum that is accessible to students and teachers alike.

The first factor that must be…… [Read More]. Educational Situations Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.

Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents.

Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing. How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures? Being an Instructor Online. Online Class Being an online instructor The current learning trends are becoming predominantly online based and many instructors find it more convenient adopting this mode of learning as opposed to the traditional classroom-based learning.

It is not to say that the online-based learning should replace the traditional classroom setting, but there is need for adaptability of either modes where necessary. The following are the major areas that I will emphasize on in order to have an effective online class and effective interaction with the students as an instructor; Assessing learning outcomes One of the methods that I will use for assessing the learning outcomes will be the evaluation of the activeness of each student in the online class especially in terms of answering questions in the online forum.

I will also post numerous assignments and use the frequency of reply or return of the exams from each student to gauge…… [Read More].

Nursing Clinical performance can be graded in two different ways. In that option, there is no letter grade given. The person being graded is simply told whether they have passed or failed the clinical examination. As a member of the committee, I would favor using the letter grades for clinical experiences.

This provides much more feedback for the person taking the clinical examination, and a person who would clearly receive an A grade is not in the same league with a person who would barely pass with a low C. Or even a D. It is necessary to note this, because both of those people passed, but yet they are not at all equal to one another.

With that in mind, it would be inappropriate to simply tell both people that they passed,…… [Read More]. Relationship Development Some Components Must. For these to from part of the way of operating they are institutionalized at the end of every thing. Looking at the permutations of relation development in business may have very little significance as with the summary of Hallen and Wiedersheim-Paul which may be considered to be the best since they deal with the four stages; pre-contact, initial interaction, development and maturity.

Pre-contact Since the related parties have been apart, the perception on their sides rely much on second hand appreciations of the whole nation, hence the initiation of cultural affinity as a starting variable. In consistency with the previous work by Inglehart secondary information can provide the basis of determining the level of trust, which can impact significantly on the subsequent relationship.

The existence of a positive attitude at this stage towards other culture can work as mitigation towards trust development.

Communication is an important factor since…… [Read More]. Information available at Wanted: Dynamic candidate for unique marketing job at one of Canada's premiere law firms Do you have strong interpersonal skills? Can you work well in a team? Are you passionate about event planning and have experience working with MS Office Suite? If you answer 'yes' to all of these questions, and are either-based or would like to relocate to Toronto, please read the following specifications.

Marketing assistant for a Canadian law firm Location of job: Toronto, Canada Possible salary bracket or range: This promotional job for a law firm requires "strong interpersonal and communication skills," the ability to multitask in a busy office environment, the ability to be a team player, and knowledge of MS Office Suite. Job requirements or specifications: Five years of relevant experience; background in event planning preferred Who to contact or where…… [Read More].

Student Assessment hat is the most appropriate way to assess student achievement? The commission of the National Middle School Assessment of student achievement suggests "authentic assessment refers to evaluation that makes use of real life tasks instead of contrived test items.

The National Middle School Assessment Authentic assessment also suggests that while standardized testing may occasionally function as a rough means of evaluating all children, such as identifying children with possible special needs, assessment in a truly learner-centered classroom will vary. Successful assessment improves learning, instruction and program effectiveness. Counseling Theory Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology.

They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways.

The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.

Existential Therapy Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," Corey, , p. Corey claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…… [Read More]. Changing the outcomes of traditional lesson plans to account for differentiated learning is a fundamental part of ensuring student success.

Each student's readiness, interest and learning profile is at the core of this approach. Students are diverse; therefore, instructional and assessment practices should be as well, to improve student outcomes in all content areas. Many teachers design lessons that have a set of specific learning objectives and standardized assessments for students.

However, today's learning models ask teachers to adopt multiple objectives and use different levels of assessment for more individualized learning Dobbertin, Differentiation of process, then, refers to the way in which a student accesses material i.

Helping adolescent mothers to achieve in school: An evaluation of the taking charge group intervention. It uses a quasi-experimental design with a pre and post test for both the comparison group and treatment group, which is a quantitative design. Participants were all pregnant or parenting adolescent females. For ethical reasons, adolescents were not denied access to the initiative, rather, adolescents self-selected their involvement in the initiative.

Those who chose to participate populated the treatment group and those who chose not to participate populated the comparison group. The intervention at the Taking Charge Initiative is heavily based in theory. Social Learning Theory is the overarching theory that dictates the actions and workings of the intervention. Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods.

Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen eagerly and understand what customers communicate with them, and have the capacity to talk clearly with customers about sensitive issues. This occupation also requires basic thinking skills, as clinical therapists must have the capacity to utilize logic and reason to solve and interpret complex issues.

Adults, especially seniors need a place where they can learn new things and express themselves. Sometimes seniors go to a senior community arts program where they learn to paint and create things for themselves and for their loved ones. Art theory in the field of physical therapy is a very helpful and useful way of integrating varied learning and complex tasks all while promoting growth and renewal. For anything to flourish, especially a program like a senior community arts program, it needs to integrate lessons and objectives that promote the growth and learning of its participants.

Therefore, it is important to understand and analyze prior and current research that not only offers a different perspective, but also assures the teacher that what they are instructing has been proven to succeed and assists the people learning, to achieve certain pre-planned objectives. This paper is a literature review of six scholarly research…… [Read More].

Of these various roles, I am most interested in how to change instruction so that it can meet desired standards and measurements. Ultimately, I believe that this is what makes the real difference in being able to achieve outcomes, particularly with the growing need for differentiated teaching strategies to achieve the same results for students with unique learning needs.

As I have mentioned, I am an advocate of summative and formative assessments because I believe they serve two very different, but complimentary purposes.

That being said, I also believe there needs to be the right mix of the two. Currently, our school relies too much on summative assessments due to increased standardized test requirements by our district and state. This has affected every role that teachers play in our assessment process. Constitutes Assessment Why Is Assessment.

Yet summative assessment, such as midterms, finals, and standardized state tests, are a part of life that must be dealt with. These assessments are extremely important because of their influence on district funding, and also administrators and parents' perceptions that the tests measure whether the school is doing its job or not, and conveying a good education to students.

It is difficult not to become obsessed with them, given that one's performance as a teacher and quality as an educator is viewed through the rubric of standardized assessment. The challenge for a teacher is to prepare students for the summative, standardized assessments they must cope with as a part of…… [Read More]. Teaching Allows Learning and Assessment for Those. Most would probably know that assessment is getting the measurement of the learners' reaction to understanding and competence in teaching instruction Curzon pg In the job as a painter and decorating tutor, assessment are very important and foremost, as in the way learners are measured against usual standards prior to exams and attaining combined standing.

My proficient and personal thoughts upon assessments are that as a teacher we need to be able to utilize various of methods and skills that will be employed to inspire and really keep learners motivated while giving feedback that is constructive in allowing them…… [Read More].

Types of Evaluation Designs and 2 Types of Methodologies. If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably true as well that evaluating the different circumstances surrounding the commission of crime is also widely diverse in its practice.

There are a number of methodologies that are used in various research including studies relating to the study of criminal justice and different aspects of that arena; two of the more commonly used methodologies employ quantitative and qualitative methods of research. The quantitative methodology is used by researchers who are seeking to quantify certain areas of study or the results of such studies. Quantifying involves numbers, percentages and numerically evaluated data.

One of the benefits that can be derived when using quantitative evaluation is that such a method provides numerical data for comparative studies. Comparative studies show specific numbers calculated from participant…… [Read More]. Construction of Created Rubrics of Checklists of. Student-directed assessment involves students actively in the process of assessment and achieves the dual goal of student empowerment as well as ensures that real learning has taken place.

This is often called "negotiable contracting" and reflects the belief that "students who are given a role in the assessment process and provided with the appropriate direction by their teachers are able to accurately evaluate their strengths and weaknesses and better pinpoint areas where they need to focus their…… [Read More].

Tale of Excellence the World. Also, the students can graph his or her findings. The formative assessments is when different colonies are observed and shared with each other in class. The student's can ask questions based on their observation Summative Assessment: Students will correctly answer teacher-created questions about their colonies. Students can graph the choices of their peers.

The teacher will specify the accuracy rate desired for this task. The teacher will observe students' discussion of their colonies. The teacher will gauge understanding by noting the types of questions students ask each other. The teacher will be looking for questions with factual answers and those that show higher-order thinking. Summative the students will all choose a different country and write a description about those countries forms of money. They will do a show and tell in the classroom on their finding.

Formative the student's observations of the different types of forms…… [Read More]. Instructional Design Assessments Are an. Summative assessments are useful to determine a student's level of mastery and can be an indicator of potential for success in subsequent courses or units. If a student does poorly on a summative assessment, for example, remedial instruction may be required.

Summative assessments help teachers evaluate content and delivery and make adjustments as needed. However, some methods of assessment are better suited to one or the other purpose. During formative assessment, learning is the shared goal of both teacher and student and alterations to the teaching and learning process take place as needed to further the goal.

This allows both the teacher and the student the opportunity for assessment and improvement as an ongoing process instead of an end product. Formative assessments are assessments for learning, rather than assessments of learning, according to the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Focused Formative assessments are focused on the learning process as well as the learning progress. While other assessments may only focus on the end result, formative assessments check the students progress consistently so that adjustments can be made to reach learning goals. Ongoing A formative assessment is consistent and ongoing throughout the learning process. It differs from assessments that focus on the end result. Ongoing assessments give both teachers and students the chance to make adjustments to teaching and learning strategies so learning ultimately takes place.

While other forms of assessment focus on the end result, formative assessments provide immediate feedback to both teachers and students due to ongoing assessment practices. The immediate feedback teachers and students experience can be used to motivate and further learning. It may be logistically impossible to provide detailed descriptive feedback for each student in a large class. Even with a smaller number of students to deal with, formative assessment is time-consuming as it requires significant, ongoing dedication and effort from the teacher to sustain.

This is especially true when combined with the summative assessments teachers are required to complete. The layered accountability chain in education — student to teacher, teacher to school, school to district, etc. This explains why, although the advantages of formative assessment have been repeatedly articulated since the distinction between it and summative assessment was first made in , empirical studies continue to show that very few teachers consistently make use of it in actual practice.

It usually takes the form of tests and examinations, though it is becoming increasingly common for summative assessment to include other tasks such as a project completed during the school year. This move away from assessments based on a single examination gives learners the opportunity to perform to the best of their ability.

Not all learners perform well under examination pressure. Furthermore,examinations do not always lend themselves to eliciting the range of language structures and uses that have been the objective of teaching. It is therefore crucial that not only is the assessment valid, but that the results obtained are reliable. Validity relates to whether the assessment tasks assess what they intend to assess. Sorry for this terribly rough example, but I don't know what you're studying: Incase you don't know, a summary is just a brief statement that addresses all the main points of something - in this case, your papers.

For the best answers, search on this site https: The aliens were like Gods compared to humans, or like the curate said "its an extermination of maggots". Humans were extremely outmatched by alien technology, yet in the end it was a natural explanation that destroyed them and saved our race.

This is a writing technique called Deus Ex Machina, which means "god out of the machine", where the enemy of the story seems impossible to defeat, yet out of the blue they are destroyed and the story ends. Another example of this is the ending of the movie The Matrix Revolutions. The aliens may have been more powerful and intelligent than we can imagine, but bacteria, and other microscopic life forms destroyed them because they've earned their right to live on Earth as organisms via evolution , and the Martians did not have any immunity to them since aliens arent from our planet, therefore they were easily killed by smaller, weaker organisms who had infact adapted to the environment.

Morgan Freeman says this at the end of the movie, and its touched upon at the end of the book. Paying Bills Writing http:

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Free Essays words | ( pages) | Preview The Impact of Technology on Assessment Practices in Mathematics - Introduction This essay aims to discuss the impact of Web Based Technology (WBT) on assessment practices in mathematics.

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Essay 5eeg Summative Assessment 5EEG-LO 1, 3, 4 and 6 - Summative Assessment. This assignment requires a written assessment .

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Teachers can use summative assessment evidence to help learning, and at the same time, using formative assessment information for summative assessment. It is both a weakness and a strength that summative assessment derived by interpreting formative evidence in a different way that both are in the hand of the teacher. Nov 13,  · Words: Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Summative assessments are useful to determine a student's level of mastery and can be an indicator of potential for success in subsequent courses or units. If a student does poorly on a summative assessment, for example, remedial instruction .

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Assessment is a term that includes all of the various methods used to determine the extent of an individual’s achievement. In teaching and learning situation, assessment refers to the methods used to determine achievement of learning outcomes. Formative and Summative Essay  Formative and summative Tiara Hutt MTE/ December 21, Tangela Hadley Formative and summative Formative assessment is a way teachers formally or informally assess the learning process going on in their classroom to help them modify their teaching strategies to improve student learning.