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A Guide to Referencing Academic Work

Many books — especially the best ones — have enjoyed many reprints, so it is necessary to be sure that your references can be traced to the right pages in the right volumes. It's usually sufficient to cite the date of the publication you are using, but often it can be informative to give the original publication date also, particularly if considering the history of emerging ideas.

If so, you should bear in mind the tip above, namely that the original language version was probably published at least a year earlier. Also avoid the trap of taking the translator as the name of a co-author, as this will rather diminish your scholarly credentials! Edited volumes make up a huge part of many areas of academic literature. In your list of references you should tackle the problem, thus:.

Different referencing systems and different usage of material will require various levels of specificity, e. There can be an element of your own judgement here, but where possible follow the established rules of your adopted system. The most useful tip of all: Any decent journal article will have a long list of references likely to contain edited volumes, translated material, collaborations and reprints; simply copy the notation.

Also look at the text itself to find a model for parenthetical referencing or footnotes. Recent Posts How often should you reference? Put the page number all the way to the right, and a shortened version of the title of your paper all the way to the left in all capital letters.

Only capitalize the first word of a journal article title, unless the title contains a proper noun called sentence case. Titles of books should preserve the published capitalization. Capitalize the city of publication, and use correct state abbreviations for states. Also capitalize the name of the publisher and end the reference with a period.

The title of larger works, whether a book, journal, website, or magazine, is in italics or underlined if handwriting , as is the issue number that appears right after the title.

Titles for shorter works like articles and chapters should not have any indicative punctuation in an APA entry. CMOS or Chicago utilizes two different of reference styles: Notes and Bibliography, and Author Date. For Notes and Bibliography, you will use a superscript at the instance of each quote in the text with a corresponding footnote at the end of the page.

All footnotes are compiled into endnotes at the end of the work, on the bibliography page. The full version of each parenthetical citation is listed alphabetically on the references page.

Simon Simon is the author last name, and is the year. You will need a citation directly after every sentence or group of sentences if you're using the same source for multiple consecutive sentences containing information you didn't think of yourself. As you do research for your essay, take note of all bibliographic information that you see.

If using a book, write down all pertinent information found on the copyright page, including the name of the publisher and the city and year of publication. Publication date is often at the bottom of webpages.

Use Notes and Bibliography if instructed. The Notes and Bibliography NB method is preferred by scholars in the humanities literature, history, arts. NB is conducive to recording a wide range of sources in detail, which the Author Date system doesn't allow for.

Leave 2 blank lines between this title and the first entry, and one blank line between entries. Notes and Bibliography style uses footnotes for page endings and endnotes for chapter endings. The bibliography page will be an alphabetized list of all sources in hanging indent. An example format for a book is as follows: An example format for a chapter in a print scholarly journal is as follows: Author last name, first name.

For an online scholarly journal article, tack on the following at the end: An example format for a website is as follows: When there is no known author, the entry should begin with the title of the document, whether it's a webpage, chapter, article, and so on. When there are multiple authors, the first listed author appears last name, first name, so that the citation is alphabetized by this author's last name.

Subsequent authors are listed by first name, like this: Always end a citation with a period. Use Author Date if instructed. The Author Date style is preferred by those in the sciences, i. Author Date is a more concise style of documentation. Leave 2 blank lines between this title and the first entry, and 1 blank line between entries. Author Date style bibliographies should be organized alphabetically by last name or by title if no author in hanging indent. Should I categorize my references into books, websites, journals etc.

No, that is not necessary. All of your sources should be listed in alphabetical order, using the authors' last name. If there is no author or the author's name is missing, the title of the work will come first in the citation and you can use the title to organize the source into the list.

According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers. A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.

Research by Wegener and Petty showed A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.

Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.

Berndt, ; Harlow, Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list.

Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.

Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading.

Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. According to Smith , Mind over Matter section, para. Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.

In the text, place a superscript numeral immediately after the text about which you would like to include more information, e. Scientists examined the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak. At the end of the paper, create a separate page labeled Notes with the title centered at the top of the page. Below are examples of two kinds of notes. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper.

It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page References with no quotation marks, underlining, etc. It should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work book, article, electronic resource, etc. Last name first, followed by author initials. Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 , List by their last names and initials.

Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , If there are more than six authors, list the first six as above and then "et al. Writing labs and the Hollywood connection.

Journal of Film and Writing, 44 3 , Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary 10th ed. When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the two sources above would appear as follows: Merriam-Webster's , and "New Drug," Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year earliest comes first.

When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first. Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34 , Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66 , Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions.

Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24 , If you are using more than one reference by the same author or the same group of authors listed in the same order published in the same year, organise them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter.

Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e. Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17 , Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52 , APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period.

The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalised. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined.

Title of Periodical, volume number issue number , pages. Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc. Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 , Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume.


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Essays menu; Essay writing guide. Home. Guides. Referencing guide. Referencing guide. A free guide from Essay UK. Referencing HARVARD referencing guide. When writing a piece of work you will need to refer in your text to material written produced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. e.g. MERCER, P.A. . OSCOLA Referencing Guide OSCOLA referencing, sometimes referred to as Oxford referencing, is a style of referencing primarily used in UK academic content related to the law. Legal sources such as cases and statues may be cited, along with secondary sources, for example, books and journals. If you are looking for our OSCOLA Reference .

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Free guide to APA referencing from Essay UK, the UK essays company that provides essay writing services for students. APA Referencing Guide APA (American Psychological Association) referencing is a style which shares several similarities with Harvard referencing; it is predominantly used in the social sciences. If you are looking for our APA Reference Generator then click on the button below: APA Reference Generator APA Referencing Overview While the .